On the Psychology and Pathology of so-called Occult Phenomena 1
Difficulty of demarcation in borderline cases between epilepsy, hysteria, and mental deficiency-Somnambulism an hysterical manifestation-A case of spontaneous somnambulism, with some characters of protracted hysterical delirium-Other cases quoted-Charcot's classification of somnambulism-Naef's and Azam's cases of periodic amnesia-Proust's and Boileau's wandering-impulse cases-William James' case of Rev. Ansel Bourne-Other examples showing changes in consciousness-Hypnagogic hallucinations-Neurasthenic mental deficiency, Bleuler's case-Summing up of Miss Elsie K.'s case-Need of further scientific investigation in the field of psychological peculiarities.
Case of Somnambulism in a Person with Neuropathic Inheritance
History of case-Accidental discovery of her mediumistic powers-Her somnambulic attacks, "attitudes passionelles," catalepsy, tachypnœa, trance speeches, etc.-Ecstasies-Her conviction of the reality of her visions-Her dreams, hypnagogic and hypnopompic visions-The elevation of her somnambulic character-Mental thought transference-S. W.'s double life-Psychographic communications-Description of séances-The Prophetess of Prevorst-Automatic writing-The two grandfathers-Appearance of other somnambulic personalities.
Development of the Somnambulic Personalities
The psychograph and spiritualistic wonders-The grandfather the medium's "guide" or "control"-Ulrich von Gerbenstein-The somnambulic personalities have access to the medium's memory-Ivenes-S. W.'s amnesia for her ecstasies-Later séances-Her journeys on the other side-Oracular sayings-Conventi-Ivenes' dignity and superiority to her "guides"-Her previous incarnations-Her race-motherhood.
Mystic Science and Mystic System of Powers
Her growing wilful deception-The waking state-Her peculiarities-Instability-Hysterical tendencies-Misreading-Errors of dispersion of attention discussed.
Table movements-Unconscious motor phenomena-Verbal suggestion and auto-suggestion-The experimenter's participation-The medium's unconscious response-Thought-reading-Table-tilting experiment, illustrated-Experiments with beginners-Myers' experiments in automatic writing-Janet's conversation with Lucie's subconsciousness-Example of the way the subconscious personality is constructed-Hallucinations appear with deepening hypnosis; some contributing factors-Comparison between dream symbols and appearance of somnambulic personalities-Extension of the unconscious sphere-The somnambulist's thinking is in plastic images, which are made objective in hallucinations-Why visual and not auditory hallucinations occur-Origin of hypnagogic hallucinations-Those of Jeanne d'Arc and others.
The Change in Character
Noticeable in S. W.'s case, also in Mary Reynolds'-Association with amnesic disturbances-Influence of puberty in our case-S. W.'s systematic anæsthesia-Ivenes not so much a case of double consciousness as one in which she dreams herself into a higher ideal state-Similar pathological dreaming found in the lives of saints-Mechanism of hysterical identification-S. W.'s dreams break out explosively-Their origin and meaning, and their subjective roots.
Relation to the Hysterical Attack
In considering the origin of attack, two moments, viz. irruption of hypnosis, and the psychic stimulation, must be taken into account-In susceptible subjects relatively small stimuli suffice to bring about somnambulism-Our case approaches to hysterical lethargy-The automatisms transform lethargy into hypnosis-Her ego-consciousness is identical in all states-Secondary somnambulic personalities split off from the primary unconscious personality-All group themselves under two types, the gay-hilarious, and serio-religious-The automatic speaking occurs-This facilitates the study of the subconscious personalities-Their share of the consciousness-The irruption of the hypnosis is complicated by an hysterical attack-The automatism arising in the motor area plays the part of hypnotist-When the hypnotism flows over into the visual sphere the hysterical attack occurs-Grandfathers I. and II.-Hysterical dissociations belong to the superficial layers of the ego-complex-There are layers beyond the reach of dissociation-Effect of the hysterical attack.
Relationship to the Unconscious Personality
The serio-religious and the gay-hilarious explained by the anamnesis-Two halves of S. W.'s character-She is conscious of the painful contrast-She seeks a middle way-Her aspirations bring her to the puberty dream of the ideal Ivenes-The repressed ideas begin an autonomous existence-This corroborates Freud's disclosures concerning dreams-The relation of the somnambulic ego-complex and the waking consciousness.
The progress of this affection reached its maximum in 4-8 weeks-Thenceforth a decline in the plasticity of the phenomena-All degrees of somnambulism were observable-Her manifest character improved-Similar improvements seen in certain cases of double consciousness-Conception that this phenomenon has a teleological meaning for the future personality-As seen in Jeanne d'Arc and Mary Reynolds II.
The Unconscious Additional Creative Work
S. W. shows primary susceptibility of the unconscious-Binet affirms the susceptibility of the hysteric is fifty times greater than that of normal-Cryptomnesia, a second additional creation-Cryptomnesic picture may enter consciousness intra-physically-Unconscious plagiarism explained-Zarathustra example-Glossolalia-Helen Smith's Martian language-The names in Ivenes' mystic system show rudimentary glossolalia-The Cryptomnesic picture may enter consciousness as a hallucination-Or arrive at consciousness by motor automatism-By automatisms regions formerly sealed are made accessible-Hypermnesia-Thought-reading a prototype for extraordinary intuitive knowledge of somnambulists and some normal persons-Association-concordance-Possibility that concept and feeling are not always clearly separated in the unconscious-S. W.'s mentality must be regarded as extraordinary.