Life in Colonial America and Pharaoh of Egypt, Queen Hatshepsut

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Life in Colonial America by Marisa Adams
1. During the late 1700’s, almost 2.5 million people lived in America. They moved from Europe into colonies that spread from Maine to Georgia. Each of the immigrants came for his own reasons; most people came because of the cheaper land, religious freedom, to serve jail time, or because of the opportunities. Some were brought to America as indentured servants. They agreed to work for a certain period of time to pay for their passage before they became free. Still others were brought to the country as slaves.
2. Most early Americans were farmers. Of course, the type of farms they had usually depended on the part of the country in which they lived. Those who lived in the northern colonies had to deal with cold climate and rocky soil. Because of this, their farms were typically small (around 55 acres) and easily run by a family with one or two indentured servants.
3. The warm climate and fertile soil of the South made farming easier. Most families lived on small farms; however, there were many families who lived on larger farms called plantations. These plantations often used many slaves to farm the land. Some of the largest plantations could easily be thousands of acres of land, housing several families and hundreds of slaves.
4. Americans of the early colonial period were very self-sufficient. They raised and grew their own food and made their own clothes. They used the land and trees around them to build their own tools, homes, barns, and even make their own medicines. If they had anything leftover, most families would trade with a neighbor for other goods; things rarely went to waste in colonial America. 
 Pharaoh of Egypt, Queen Hatshepsut Author Unknown, Adapted by Candy Mazze.
1. Queen Hatshepsut ruled Egypt over 3,500 years ago. There were no wars during her time as a ruler, and the people of her country admired and worshipped her. She was one of the greatest rulers in history.
2. At that time, women didn’t have the same rights as men, and were certainly not recognized as being able to rule a country. So how did she, Hatshepsut, become queen? Could it be because this Queen, the Pharaoh of Egypt, dressed like a man?
3. Thutmose I was the pharaoh until he passed away. The title then moved to Thutmose II, the oldest son. Hatshepsut married him, giving her the title of Queen. The two ruled the country together. A few years later, Thutmose II passed away. She lost power as Queen as a result of his death. The next brother, Thutmose III, was only 10 years old. In order for him to be pharaoh, he needed a regent. Queen Hatshepsut took on that role and ruled in his place. She decided to dress and act like a man –even wearing a false beard – and made herself the pharaoh.
4. Queen Hatshepsut accomplished many things during her reign. Her focus was on the people of Egypt, making efforts to improve their lives rather than trying to expand the country, as other rulers had done. She built temples and monuments throughout Egypt, and created peace within the country and with other countries.
5. One major achievement she completed as a ruler was a trade exploration. Egyptians set sail to the Land of Punt, acquiring numerous goods and rare items. This African kingdom, now known as Somalia, was home to spices, gold, perfumes, and rare animal skins and feathers that the Egyptians brought back to the pharaoh. The area wasn’t explored much, and travelling there and back meant risking much danger, making the exploration a historical moment for Queen Hatshepsut and for the country of Egypt.
6. The end of Queen Hatshepsut’s reign was not as “unique” as its beginning. Although she sought peace and a better life for the Egyptians, she and her country were constantly threatened. Thutmose III was one of those who created tension. As he got older, he wanted the throne and was determined to be the pharaoh. At some point, Queen Hatshepsut apparently disappeared, and Thutmose III became pharaoh. The legend suggests she was murdered by Thutmose III so he could “rightfully” regain the throne.

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Word Lists:

Indenture : a legal agreement, contract, or document.

Plantation : an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor.

Ruler : a person exercising government or dominion.

Exploration : the action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it

Colonial : relating to or characteristic of a colony or colonies

Farming : the activity or business of growing crops and raising livestock

Acre : a unit of land area equal to 4,840 square yards (0.405 hectare)

Immigrant : a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country

Regent : a person appointed to administer a country because the monarch is a minor or is absent or incapacitated.

Tension : the state of being stretched tight


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