- By Thomas Wentworth Higgins
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1) THE opinion of the philosophers perhaps seems to some to be a paradox; but still let us examine as well as we can, if it is true that it is possible to do everything both with caution and with confidence. For caution seems to be in a manner contrary to confidence, and contraries are in no way consistent. That which seems too many to be a paradox in the matter under consideration in my opinion is of this kind: if we asserted that we ought to employ caution and confidence in the same things, men might justly accuse us of bringing together things which cannot be united. But now where is the difficulty in what is said? For if these things are true, which have been often said and often proved, that the nature of good is in the use of appearances, and the nature of evil likewise, and that things independent of our will do not admit either the nature of evil nor of good, what paradox do the philosophers assert if they say that where things are not dependent on the will, there you should employ confidence, but where they are dependent on the will, there you should employ caution? For if the bad consists in a bad exercise of the will, caution ought only to be used where things are dependent on the will. But if things in dependent of the will and not in our power are nothing to us, with respect to these we must employ confidence; and thus we shall both be cautious and confident, and indeed confident because of our caution. For by employing caution towards things which are really bad, it will result that we shall have confidence with respect to things which are not so. 
2) We are then in the condition of deer; when they flee from the huntsmen’s feathers in fright, whither do they turn and in what do they seek refuge as safe? They turn to the nets, and thus they perish by confounding things which are objects of fear with things that they ought not to fear. Thus we also act: in what cases do we fear? In things which are independent of the will. In what cases on the contrary do we behave with confidence, as if there were no danger? In things dependent on the will. To be deceived then, or to act rashly, or shamelessly or with base desire to seek something, does not concern us at all, if we only hit the mark in things which are independent of our will. But where there is death, or exile or pain or infamy, there we attempt to run away, there we are struck with terror. Therefore as we may expect it to happen with those who err in the caution against the fear of death. But now we do the contrary, and employ against death the attempt to escape; and to our opinion about it employ carelessness, rashness and indifference.

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Word Lists:

Paradox : a seemingly absurd or self-contradictory statement or proposition that when investigated or explained may prove to be well founded or true

Caution : care taken to avoid danger or mistakes

Confidence : the feeling or belief that one can rely on someone or something; firm trust

Rash : displaying or proceeding from a lack of careful consideration of the possible consequences of an action

Contrary : opposite in nature, direction, or meaning

Dependent : contingent on or determined by

Employ : give work to (someone) and pay them for it

Philosopher : a person engaged or learned in philosophy, especially as an academic discipline.

Infamy : the state of being well known for some bad quality or deed

Independent : free from outside control; not depending on another's authority


Additional Information:

Rating: C

Words: 498

Unique Words : 179

Sentences : 20

Reading Time : 2:12

Noun : 108

Conjunction : 56

Adverb : 42

Interjection : 0

Adjective : 28

Pronoun : 44

Verb : 90

Preposition : 78

Letter Count : 2,109

Sentiment : Positive

Tone : Neutral (Slightly Formal)

Difficult Words : 77

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