What Makes Up the Earth's Crust

- By Agnes Giberne
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Agnes Giberne (19 November 1845 in Belgaum, India – 20 August 1939 in Eastbourne, England) was a prolific British novelist and scientific writer.[1] Her fiction was typical of Victorian evangelical fiction with moral or religious themes for children. She also wrote books on science for young people, a handful of historical novels, and one well-regarded biography. Giberne was born in Belgaum, Karnataka, India on 19 November 1845,[2] the daughter of Captain Charles Giberne (16 June 1808 – 21 December 1902)[3] of the Bengal Native Infantry and Lydia Mary Wilson (c. 1816 – 20 May 1890)[4].[5] Her ancestors were Huguenots from Languedoc in France where the "de Gibernes" lived in Chateau de Gibertain.[6] Charles Giberne was from a large family. He had eight sisters and four brothers.[note 1] Three of his brothers also served in India.[7]
1. People tend to think of land and water on the earth as if they were fixed in one changeless form. As if every continent and every island were of exactly the same shape and size now that it always has been and always will be.
2. Yet, nothing can be further from the truth. The earth’s crust is a scene of constant change, struggle, building up, and wearing away.
3. The work may go on slowly, but it does go on. The sea is always fighting against the land, beating down her cliffs, eating into her shores, swallowing bit by bit of solid earth. Rain and frost and streams are always busily at work. They help the ocean in her work of destruction. Year by year and century by century, it continues. Not one country in the world, which is bordered by the sea, has the same coastline that it had one hundred years ago. Every land loses a part of its material every century. It is washed away, bit by bit, into the ocean.
4. Is this hard to believe? Look at the crumbling cliffs around old England’s shores. See the effect upon the beach of one night’s fierce storm. Mark the pathway on the cliff, how it seems to have crept so near the edge that here and there it is scarcely safe to walk upon. Very soon, such a path will become impassable. Just from a mere accident, of course, the breaking away of some of the earth, loosened by rain and frost and wind. But, this is an accident that happens daily in hundreds of places around the world.
5. Leaving the ocean, look now at the river near your own neighborhood. See the slight muddiness which seems to color its waters. Why is that? Only a little earth and sand are carried off from the banks as it flowed. It is very unimportant, and small in quantity, doubtless, just at this moment and just at this spot. But what of that little going on week after week, and century after century, throughout the whole course of the river, and throughout the whole course of every river in our whole country and in every other country? A vast amount of material must every year be torn from the land and given to the ocean. And the land’s loss here is the ocean’s gain.

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Word Lists:

Impassable : impossible to travel along or over

Cliff : a steep rock face, especially at the edge of the sea

Earth : the planet on which we live; the world

Loosen : make (something tied, fastened, or fixed in place) less tight or firm

Crust : the tough outer part of a loaf of bread

Century : a period of one hundred years

Continent : any of the world's main continuous expanses of land (Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America).

Accident : an unfortunate incident that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage or injury

Throughout : in every part of (a place or object)

Neighborhood : a district, especially one forming a community within a town or city


Additional Information:

Rating: A

Words: 403

Unique Words : 190

Sentences : 36

Reading Time : 1:47

Noun : 128

Conjunction : 38

Adverb : 35

Interjection : 2

Adjective : 18

Pronoun : 19

Verb : 56

Preposition : 58

Letter Count : 1,679

Sentiment : Positive

Tone : Formal

Difficult Words : 67

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