SENTENCES.-PARTS OF SPEECH.-ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE.-PHRASES AND CLAUSES
1. In thinking we arrange
ideas and objects together. Words are the symbols of ideas or objects. A Sentence is a group of words that expresses a single complete thought
2. Sentences are of four kinds:
1. Declarative; a sentence
that tells or declares something; as, That book is mine
2. Imperative; a sentence
that expresses a command
; as, Bring me that book.
3. Interrogative; a sentence
that asks a question; as, Is that book mine
3. Parts of Speech. Words have different
uses in sentences. According to their uses, words are divided into classes called Parts of Speech. The parts of speech
are as follows:
1. Noun; a word used as the name of something; as, man, box, Pittsburgh, Harry, silence
Page 2 2. Pronoun; a word used instead of a noun
; as, I, he, it, that.
Nouns, pronouns, or groups of words that are used as nouns or pronouns, are called by the general term
3. Adjective; a word used to limit
of a noun
or a pronoun
; as, good, five, tall, many.
The words a, an, and the are words used to modify
nouns or pronouns. They are adjectives, but are usually called Articles.
4. Verb; a word used to state
something about some person or thing; as, do, see, think, make.
7. Conjunction; a word used to connect
words, phrases, clauses, and sentences; as, and, but, if, although, or.
4. A sentence
is made up of distinct
parts or elements. The essential
or Principal Elements are the Subject and the Predicate.
The Subject of a sentence
is the part which mentions that about which something is said. The Predicate is the part which states that which is said about the subject
. Man walks. In this sentence
, man is the subject
, and walks is the predicate
There may be, also, more than one subject
connected with the same predicate
; as, The man and the woman walk. This is called a Compound Subject. A Compound Predicate consists of more than one predicate
used with the same subject
; as, The man both walks and runs.
5. Besides the principal
elements in a sentence
, there are Subordinate Elements. These are the Attribute Complement, the Object Complement, the Adjective Modifier, and the Adverbial Modifier.
Some verbs, to complete
their sense, need
to be followed by some other word or group of words. These words which "complement
," or complete
the meanings of verbs are called Complements.
The Attribute Complement completes the meaning
of the verb
by stating some class, condition
, or attribute
of the subject
; as, My friend is a student, I am well, The man is good Student, well, and good complete
the meanings of their respective
verbs, by stating some class, condition
, or attribute
of the subjects of the verbs.
The attribute complement
usually follows the verb
be or its forms, is, are, was, will be, etc. The attribute complement
is usually a noun
, or adjective
, although it may be a phrase
fulfilling the function
of any of these parts of speech
. It must not be confused
with an adverb
or an adverbial modifier
. In the sentence
, He is there, there is an adverb
, not an attribute complement
Adjective and Adverbial Modifiers may consist
simply of adjectives and adverbs, or of phrases and clauses used as adjectives or adverbs.
A Prepositional Phrase, always used as either an adjective
or an adverbial modifier
, consists of a preposition
with its object
and the modifiers of the object
; as, He lives in Pittsburg, Mr. Smith of this place is the manager
of the mill
, The letter is in the nearest desk.
There are also Verb-phrases. A Verb-phrase
is a phrase
that serves as a verb
; as, I am coming, He shall be told, He ought to have been told.
7. A Clause is a group of words containing a subject
and a predicate
; as, The man that I saw was tall. The clause
, that I saw, contains both a subject
, I, and a predicate
, saw. This clause
, since it merely
states something of minor
importance in the sentence
, is called the Subordinate Clause. The Principal Clause, the one making the most important assertion
, is, The man was tall. Clauses may be used as adjectives, as adverbs, and as nouns. A clause
used as a noun
is called a Substantive Clause. Examine the following examples:
Adjective Clause: The book that I want is a history.
Adverbial Clause: He came when he had finished with the work.
Noun Clause as subject
: That I am here is true.
Noun Clause as object
: He said that I was mistaken
Page 5 8. Sentences, as to their composition
, are classified as follows:
Simple; a sentence
consisting of a single statement; as, The man walks.
Compound; a sentence
consisting of two or more clauses of equal
importance connected by conjunctions expressed or understood; as, The man is tall and walks rapidly, and Watch the little things; they are important.
In this and in all following exercises, be able
to give the reason
for everything you do and for every conclusion
you reach. Only intelligent
and reasoning work is worth while.
In the following list of sentences:
(1) Determine the part of speech
of every word.
Houses are built of wood, brick, stone, and other materials, and are constructed in various
The path of glory
leads but to the grave
We gladly accepted the offer which he made.
I am nearly ready, and shall soon join you.
There are few men who do not try to be honest
Page 6 Men may come, and men may go, but I go on forever
He works hard, and rests little.
She is still no better, but we hope that there will be a change.
Let each speak for himself.
It was I who told him to go.
To live an honest
life should be the aim of every one.
Who it really was no one knew, but all believed it to have been him.
In city and in country people think very differently.
To be or not to be, that is the question.
In truth, I think that I saw a brother of his in that place.
By a great effort
he managed to make headway
against the current
Beyond this, I have nothing to say.
That we are never too old to learn is a true saying.
Full often wished he that the wind might rage
Lucky is he who has been educated to bear his fate
It is I whom you see.
of history is a study
that demands a well-trained memory
Beyond the city limits the trains run more rapidly than they do here.
Alas! I can travel no more.
A lamp that smokes is a torture
to one who wants to study