On the Psychology and Pathology of so-called Occult Phenomena 1
Difficulty of demarcation in borderline cases between epilepsy, hysteria, and mental deficiency-Somnambulism an hysterical manifestation-A case of spontaneous somnambulism, with some characters of protracted hysterical delirium-Other cases quoted-Charcot's classification of somnambulism-Naef's and Azam's cases of periodic amnesia-Proust's and Boileau's wandering-impulse cases-William James' case of Rev. Ansel Bourne-Other examples showing changes in consciousness-Hypnagogic hallucinations-Neurasthenic mental deficiency, Bleuler's case-Summing up of Miss Elsie K.'s case-Need of further scientific investigation in the field of psychological peculiarities.
Case of Somnambulism in a Person with Neuropathic Inheritance
History of case-Accidental discovery of her mediumistic powers-Her somnambulic attacks, "attitudes passionelles," catalepsy, tachypnœa, trance
speeches, etc.-Ecstasies-Her conviction of the reality
of her visions-Her dreams, hypnagogic and hypnopompic visions-The elevation of her somnambulic character-Mental thought transference-S. W.'s double life-Psychographic communications-Description of séances-The Prophetess of Prevorst-Automatic writing-The two grandfathers-Appearance of other somnambulic personalities.
Development of the Somnambulic Personalities
The psychograph and spiritualistic wonders-The grandfather the medium's "guide" or "control"-Ulrich von Gerbenstein-The somnambulic personalities have access to the medium's memory-Ivenes-S. W.'s amnesia for her ecstasies-Later séances-Her journeys on the other side-Oracular sayings-Conventi-Ivenes' dignity and superiority to her "guides"-Her previous incarnations-Her race-motherhood.
Mystic Science and Mystic System of Powers
Her growing wilful deception-The waking state-Her peculiarities-Instability-Hysterical tendencies-Misreading-Errors of dispersion of attention discussed.
Table movements-Unconscious motor phenomena-Verbal suggestion and auto-suggestion-The experimenter's participation-The medium's unconscious response-Thought-reading-Table-tilting experiment, illustrated-Experiments with beginners-Myers' experiments in automatic writing-Janet's conversation with Lucie's subconsciousness-Example of the way the subconscious personality is constructed-Hallucinations appear with deepening hypnosis; some contributing factors-Comparison between dream symbols and appearance of somnambulic personalities-Extension of the unconscious sphere-The somnambulist's thinking is in plastic images, which are made objective in hallucinations-Why visual and not auditory hallucinations occur-Origin of hypnagogic hallucinations-Those of Jeanne d'Arc and others.
The Change in Character
Noticeable in S. W.'s case, also in Mary Reynolds'-Association with amnesic disturbances-Influence of puberty in our case-S. W.'s systematic anæsthesia-Ivenes not so much a case of double consciousness as one in which she dreams herself into a higher ideal state-Similar pathological dreaming found in the lives of saints-Mechanism of hysterical identification-S. W.'s dreams break out explosively-Their origin and meaning, and their subjective roots.
Relation to the Hysterical Attack
In considering the origin of attack
, two moments, viz. irruption of hypnosis, and the psychic stimulation, must be taken into account-In susceptible subjects relatively small stimuli suffice to bring about somnambulism-Our case approaches to hysterical lethargy-The automatisms transform lethargy into hypnosis-Her ego-consciousness is identical in all states-Secondary somnambulic personalities split off from the primary unconscious personality-All group themselves under two types, the gay-hilarious, and serio-religious-The automatic speaking occurs-This facilitates the study of the subconscious personalities-Their share of the consciousness-The irruption of the hypnosis is complicated by an hysterical attack
-The automatism arising in the motor area plays the part of hypnotist-When the hypnotism flows over into the visual sphere the hysterical attack
occurs-Grandfathers I. and II.-Hysterical dissociations belong to the superficial layers of the ego-complex-There are layers beyond the reach of dissociation-Effect of the hysterical attack
Relationship to the Unconscious Personality
The serio-religious and the gay-hilarious explained by the anamnesis-Two halves of S. W.'s character-She is conscious of the painful contrast-She seeks a middle way-Her aspirations bring her to the puberty dream of the ideal Ivenes-The repressed ideas begin an autonomous existence-This corroborates Freud's disclosures concerning dreams-The relation of the somnambulic ego-complex and the waking consciousness.
The progress of this affection reached its maximum in 4-8 weeks-Thenceforth a decline in the plasticity of the phenomena-All degrees of somnambulism were observable-Her manifest character improved-Similar improvements seen in certain cases of double consciousness-Conception that this phenomenon has a teleological meaning for the future personality-As seen in Jeanne d'Arc and Mary Reynolds II.
The Unconscious Additional Creative Work
S. W. shows primary susceptibility of the unconscious-Binet affirms the susceptibility of the hysteric is fifty times greater than that of normal-Cryptomnesia, a second additional creation-Cryptomnesic picture may enter consciousness intra-physically-Unconscious plagiarism explained-Zarathustra example-Glossolalia-Helen Smith's Martian language-The names in Ivenes' mystic system show rudimentary glossolalia-The Cryptomnesic picture may enter consciousness as a hallucination-Or arrive at consciousness by motor automatism-By automatisms regions formerly sealed are made accessible-Hypermnesia-Thought-reading a prototype for extraordinary intuitive knowledge of somnambulists and some normal persons-Association-concordance-Possibility that concept and feeling are not always clearly separated in the unconscious-S. W.'s mentality must be regarded as extraordinary.