CCSS Practice Tests for Grades 3-8 Mathematics & ELA.

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Mathematics

Common Core State Standard: 4.G.3

Grade: 4

Subject: MATH

Domain: Geometry

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement.

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

Standard Description: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example: Know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36),

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons comparisons are valid only when two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100 ; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100 and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. (Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.) (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering

Standard Description: Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

Standard Description: Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule

Theme: Gain familiarity with factors and multiples

Standard Description: Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

Theme: Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

Standard Description: Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Theme: Gain familiarity with factors and multiples

Standard Description: Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.

Standard Description: Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule "Add 3" and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

Theme: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering

Standard Description: Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering

Standard Description: Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 ; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8 ; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).

Theme: Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers

Standard Description: Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100 and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100. (Students who can generate equivalent fractions can develop strategies for adding fractions with unlike denominators in general. But addition and subtraction with unlike denominators in general is not a requirement at this grade.) (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100 ; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions

Standard Description: Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons comparisons are valid only when two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

Theme: Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers

Standard Description: Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic

Standard Description: Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example: Know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ….

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

Theme: Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Standard Description: Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

Standard Description: Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "one-degree angle," and can be used to measure angles.

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement.

Theme: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles

Standard Description: Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

Theme: Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles

Standard Description: Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

Standard Description: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

Standard Description: Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, setting descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Standard Description: Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Standard Description: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Standard Description: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

Standard Description: Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Standard Description: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

Standard Description: By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4

Standard Description: Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer

Standard Description: Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

Standard Description: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

Standard Description: Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

Standard Description: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1

Standard Description: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.(Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1

Standard Description: With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

Standard Description: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

Standard Description: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Standard Description: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Standard Description: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Standard Description: Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

Standard Description: Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

Standard Description: Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

Standard Description: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Standard Description: Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character"s thoughts, words, or actions).

Standard Description: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean).

Standard Description: Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, setting descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

Standard Description: Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

Standard Description: By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Standard Description: Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Standard Description: Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

Standard Description: Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

Standard Description: Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.

Standard Description: Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

Standard Description: By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as necessary at the high end of the range.

Standard Description: Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer"s purpose.

Standard Description: Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

Standard Description: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

Standard Description: Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

Standard Description: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

Standard Description: With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.(Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3up to and including grade 4 on page 29.)

Standard Description: With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting.

Standard Description: Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

Standard Description: Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character"s thoughts, words, or actions].").

Standard Description: Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text").

Standard Description: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Standard Description: Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Standard Description: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

Standard Description: Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

Standard Description: Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

Standard Description: Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

Standard Description: Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).