Engineering Compilation: Crash Course Kids - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

Engineering Compilation: Crash Course Kids - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


Engineering Compilation: Crash Course Kids - By Crash Course Kids



Transcript
00:0-1 Hello and welcome to our first Crash Course kids compilation
00:03 video . This one is all about engineering . I
00:05 know that we all want to build things , make
00:07 stuff and just plain enjoy and understand the things that
00:10 others have made . But how do they do it
00:13 ? How do we do it ? This collection of
00:15 videos will help us all understand a little more about
00:18 engineers and the engineering process . So let's get started
00:22 . How do we get around from place to place
00:24 without having to walk everywhere ? How can we communicate
00:27 with people who live far away ? These were problems
00:29 that people struggled with for a long time . Until
00:32 recently before there were things like cars and phones and
00:35 computers and you know who solved those problems Engineers .
00:39 But do you know what an engineer is ? The
00:45 short answer is that an engineer is someone who wants
00:47 to know how and why things work . Now I
00:50 want to know how and why things work . But
00:52 does that make me an engineer ? Not quite besides
00:55 being naturally curious And engineer is a person who designs
00:58 and builds things like machines or systems or structures that
01:01 help solve a specific problem . There's more than just
01:04 one type of engineer too . But no matter what
01:06 type of engineer someone is , they have to ask
01:08 themselves three very important questions when they're working . Number
01:12 one , what is the problem that needs to be
01:13 solved and number two , who has the problem that
01:16 needs to be solved ? And most importantly number three
01:19 , why is this problem important to solve ? Let's
01:21 take a look at some examples . A really famous
01:28 example of engineering is the Golden gate bridge in san
01:31 Francisco California . I mentioned that there are different kinds
01:34 of engineers and a civil engineer is someone who designs
01:37 and constructs buildings , roads and yep bridges . For
01:40 the person who designed the Golden Gate Bridge , what
01:42 was the problem that they needed to solve ? People
01:44 couldn't travel in or out of SAn Francisco which is
01:46 surrounded on both sides by water without a boat who
01:49 had the problem ? Residents of SAn Francisco mostly ,
01:52 but really anybody traveling in the area and why was
01:55 the problem important to solve ? Well , you didn't
01:57 want a whole bunch of SAn Francisco . Residents trapped
01:59 in san Francisco forever , even if it is super
02:02 cool city . Plus you wanted people outside of SAn
02:04 Francisco to be able to travel to the city easily
02:07 if they needed to . So the Golden Gate bridge
02:09 was engineered as a solution to this problem . In
02:11 addition to civil engineers , they're also mechanical , electrical
02:14 , chemical , computer , nuclear and software engineers .
02:17 And the list goes on . Let's talk about what
02:20 some of the other types of engineers do . First
02:22 up electrical engineers , electrical engineers , study electricity ,
02:26 they design electrical systems like circuits and computer chips .
02:29 Think of an electrical object that you use pretty regularly
02:32 . How about your microwave ? What problem was the
02:34 microwave a solution to cold food ? Right . You
02:37 have an electrical engineer to thank for the ability to
02:39 reheat that leftover pizza you just had for lunch .
02:42 But while you might not have heard of joseph Strauss
02:44 , Sir Percy Spencer , the engineers responsible for the
02:46 Golden gate bridge and the microwave , respectively . You've
02:49 probably heard of Henry Ford as in ford cars .
02:52 Henry Ford was a mechanical engineer or someone working in
02:55 the manufacturing industry making mechanical things like tools , engines
02:59 and machines , machines like cars . Ford didn't invent
03:02 the automobile , but his ford Motor company made a
03:05 lot of them . His model T car was famous
03:08 for being affordable for plenty of americans ford , saw
03:10 that lots of people who wanted to drive cars just
03:13 couldn't because they couldn't afford the pricey vehicles that were
03:16 for sale . So he engineered a cheaper model as
03:18 a solution to this problem , his fellow engineers started
03:21 to do the same and now , well cars are
03:24 everywhere . Henry Ford is not the only big name
03:26 engineer . A famous engineer around today is Marissa Mayer
03:30 . Mayor is the president of the internet company Yahoo
03:32 and is also a software engineers . Software engineers work
03:35 on computers and other products that use software to write
03:38 programs to make them faster and able to do more
03:41 things . No matter what kind of engineer someone is
03:48 . Their job at . Its most basic level is
03:50 problem solving . Each engineer just specializes in solving certain
03:54 kinds of problems . While it might seem like there
03:56 are too many types of engineers to keep track of
03:59 just wait 15 years or 50 or 100 because we'll
04:03 probably have a ton of different types to add to
04:05 the list by then . Think about it over 100
04:08 years ago . We didn't have jobs in fields like
04:09 aerospace engineering where people design and construct planes and spacecraft
04:14 . We didn't have planes like we do today or
04:16 need spaceships . So we didn't need people to engineer
04:18 them . Who knows what machines or tools or everyday
04:21 objects we'll have in the year 30 15 personally .
04:24 I'm hoping for underwater cities . But whatever these things
04:27 are , we'll need engineers to make them . So
04:29 what do you say ? Who wants to be an
04:30 engineer ? I'm gonna take a wild guess and say
04:34 you've probably used the phone and I bet you've enjoyed
04:37 the benefits of a little thing . We call air
04:39 conditioning . You know , who made those things possible
04:41 ? Engineers . We were just talking about engineers in
04:44 our last video , people who design and build things
04:46 to solve problems . And there are lots of different
04:49 kinds of engineers , no matter what type of engineer
04:51 you want to be . Those civil , mechanical ,
04:53 electrical or a kind that doesn't even exist yet .
04:56 There's a series of steps that all engineers follow when
04:59 they're trying to solve a problem . This process is
05:01 called wait for it . The engineering process makes sense
05:05 to me . So what sort of steps are included
05:07 in the engineering process and why do we need it
05:14 ? Let's go through it step by step and discover
05:16 how awesome things are made . First thing you gotta
05:18 do is just define the problem . I mean ,
05:21 before you can solve a problem , you have to
05:23 figure out what it is right . For example ,
05:25 back in the 1800s , an engineer named Alexander Graham
05:28 Bell was trying to come up with a simpler ,
05:30 cheaper way for people to communicate back then . The
05:32 best you could do was a telegraph , which was
05:34 an old fashioned system of sending messages over electrical wires
05:37 . Bell identified his problem , communicating with people who
05:40 are far away was expensive and took a lot of
05:43 time . So his invention or solution to this problem
05:46 was something you may have heard of the telephone .
05:48 Nice . Now , once you figured out what problem
05:51 you want to tackle , you need to do your
05:53 research . You can start by just making a list
05:55 of questions you have and what information you need to
05:58 start answering them . You can also look around and
06:00 find what other things already exist that I've tried to
06:02 solve the same problem . Maybe they can be improved
06:05 . A good example . Here is the man who
06:07 helped us blow stuff up . The chemist and engineer
06:09 Alfred Nobel invented the explosive known as dynamite . Not
06:13 because he particularly enjoyed explosions , but because miners and
06:16 other people who well needed to blow stuff up to
06:19 do their jobs needed an explosive that was safer to
06:22 you . So before he started on that problem ,
06:25 Nobel did research to see what explosives already existed ,
06:28 which ones worked well and which ones didn't . This
06:30 takes us to step three , develop a solution after
06:34 your research is done . This is where you say
06:35 exactly how you think , you can solve the problem
06:38 and once you've thought of a good solution , you
06:40 have to figure out how it will actually work and
06:42 what it will look like . So you have to
06:44 design your solution . This is where you get to
06:46 draw . Civil engineers always sketch out their ideas like
06:50 buildings and bridges and towers to show what they'll look
06:53 like when they're done . Gustav , you fell designed
06:55 the famous Eiffel Tower in France and he definitely showed
06:58 up on day one of construction knowing exactly what it
07:01 was gonna look like on to step five build a
07:04 prototype . A prototype is just a simple model that
07:07 lets you test out your design . It can be
07:09 as big as the real thing is going to be
07:10 or it can be a smaller version . You just
07:12 need to have a prototype so you can test it
07:15 . This may be the most important step in the
07:17 whole process . Engineers need to test their design to
07:20 see if it works like they wanted to . So
07:22 say if you're building is a big tower , does
07:24 it stand up ? Does it stay standing up if
07:27 you're designing something with moving parts , does it work
07:29 the way you want ? Now take it from me
07:31 , my future engineers , you might have a great
07:34 idea , a really terrific solution to a really big
07:37 problem . But when you get to this step ,
07:39 your prototype probably won't work exactly the way you want
07:42 . At least not . On the first try .
07:44 Most engineers test their prototypes over and over and over
07:48 again . That's why a lot of time and brain
07:51 power goes into the very last step evaluating your solutions
07:55 , evaluating just means asking yourself whether things are working
07:58 the way you want or why they are or aren't
08:02 . I like to think of this step as question
08:04 everything . This is when engineers review all of the
08:07 facts and ask themselves questions followed by even more questions
08:11 . What worked well , why did it work ?
08:13 Why didn't it work ? How could it be made
08:16 better ? And most of the time the answers to
08:19 these questions are going to send you back several steps
08:22 . Like once you figured out why your prototype wasn't
08:24 working , you'll have to design a new solution and
08:27 then build it and then tested again . Sometimes engineers
08:30 go through this process 45 even six times or more
08:34 . Take Willis Carrier , the inventor of modern air
08:37 conditioning . He tested his prototypes four years before he
08:40 figured out the design that worked the way he wanted
08:43 and solve the problem . He wanted to fix like
08:45 all engineers , he failed a lot before he succeeded
08:48 and that's okay because he learned something from every failure
08:52 which made his product even better in the end .
08:54 And I for one am glad he kept going .
08:58 Yeah , so the engineering process is a series of
09:03 steps that engineers or anyone should use when they're facing
09:07 a challenge . The process is important because it allows
09:10 engineers to experiment and also to fail . Both of
09:13 these things give engineers a chance to go back and
09:16 improve on their original idea , giving us something even
09:19 better down the road . So the next time you
09:21 fail at something , don't feel too bad . Think
09:23 about the telephone and the air conditioner and the Eiffel
09:26 Tower and then try again . So those are the
09:29 basics . But there's a problem actually . There are
09:32 lots of problems . How do we define what the
09:34 problems are for our specific challenge ? Let's have a
09:37 look . Problems . We've all got them , you
09:43 me t Swift , Tony Stark . Some problems like
09:45 forgetting to do your homework might seem like a pretty
09:47 big deal to you , but when you compare them
09:49 to other bigger problems , they're really not so bad
09:51 . Like what kind of bigger problems ? Well the
09:53 kinds of problems engineers face , like how to safely
09:56 fly hundreds of people through the air in a small
09:58 vehicle from one country to another or how to make
10:01 an eco friendly building in a seaside town that can
10:03 withstand hurricane force winds or how to send a bunch
10:06 of earthbound humans hurtling off into space and get them
10:10 back . That homework doesn't seem like such a big
10:12 problem anymore , does it ? To be clear ?
10:14 I'm not saying that you don't have to do your
10:16 homework if you didn't , it would definitely be a
10:18 problem . Just not as big as like having to
10:21 invent a spaceship and that's the kind of stuff that
10:23 engineers do . Engineers are people who want to know
10:25 how and why things work . Not only that ,
10:28 they actually design and build things like machines , systems
10:30 or structures to help solve specific problems . All engineers
10:34 , whatever type they are , follow the same series
10:36 of steps when trying to solve a problem . You'll
10:38 remember these steps as the engineering process and the first
10:41 step in that process is defining the problem . When
10:44 an engineer identifies a problem here , she hopes to
10:46 solve . But that first step isn't as simple as
10:48 you think it is . So it's time for our
10:50 big question . How does an engineer define a problem
10:54 ? Yeah , let's come up with a fake problem
10:59 to solve and we'll see what we wind up with
11:01 , pretend you're on one side of a very big
11:03 canyon and you need to get to the other side
11:05 . So that's the problem you need to solve right
11:07 , how to cross this very big canyon sort of
11:10 , but not exactly . We can do better if
11:12 I was an engineer and found myself on one side
11:14 of that huge canyon . Here's how you go about
11:16 identifying the problem . I ask questions a lot of
11:19 questions , all the questions . Mhm I need to
11:25 cross this very big canyon , but is that my
11:28 actual problem ? Mm This canyon is very big and
11:32 I need to get to the other side . I
11:33 know I'll cross the bridge . Wait , is there
11:36 a bridge ? Uh Yeah , there's no bridge .
11:38 Okay , can I climb down one side of the
11:40 canyon and then up the other side ? Uh definitely
11:43 not way too deep . Plus there's a roaring river
11:46 at the bottom we have to figure out how to
11:48 cross . So I can't cross the canyon by bridge
11:50 , I can't climb down and up and I can't
11:52 swim across it . What's something I can do that
11:54 doesn't require a bridge climbing or swimming ? I know
11:57 I need to find a way to fly across the
11:59 canyon and that's my problem . More importantly , that's
12:02 my solvable problem . How do I fly across this
12:04 very big canyon ? It took a little bit of
12:11 thinking and a whole lot of questions , but how
12:13 can you fly across the canyon is an easier problem
12:15 to address than the much less specific . I'm on
12:17 one side of a big canyon and I want to
12:19 get to the other side and I don't know how
12:21 to get across it , which strictly speaking isn't a
12:23 question , it's just complaining about a problem really loudly
12:26 . So defining the problem in a solvable way is
12:28 really key to being a good engineer . While that
12:30 first step might seem pretty easy , make sure you
12:33 treat it like the super important step that it is
12:35 , because it sets the stage for all of the
12:37 steps of the engineering process that follow . If you
12:39 don't define a potentially solvable problem from the start ,
12:42 you might never well solve it . So , an
12:45 engineer asks a lot of questions to define a problem
12:48 as specifically as they can , and most importantly as
12:50 something that can be solved . So how is engineers
12:53 ? Sabrina going to find a way to fly across
12:55 that gorge . You're gonna have to solve that problem
12:57 by watching our next lesson problems , problems , problems
13:02 . We've been learning a lot about engineering lately and
13:04 engineering always starts with a problem that needs to be
13:07 solved , but I'm tired of talking about problems .
13:10 So let's talk about solutions Instead , we've already learned
13:13 about how engineers define problems . Now it's time to
13:15 discover how they define success . I don't mean how
13:18 they define success , like in general , like success
13:21 is graduating from a good school or success is getting
13:23 a good bonus , check at work or successes ,
13:25 winning a lifetime supply of macaroni and cheese . Although
13:28 I'm not gonna lie , that sounds like success to
13:30 me . With engineers define success , They do it
13:32 in relation to the problem they're trying to solve .
13:34 So for example , what does a successful solution to
13:37 my problem look like ? The big question we're asking
13:39 today is what makes a solution successful ? Okay ,
13:47 let's back up a bit . A solution is what
13:49 again , a solution is something that an engineer designs
13:51 or builds to solve a problem here . She has
13:53 some solutions that engineers have come up with include the
13:56 telephone , a solution to the problem of how people
13:58 in different places can communicate with each other or the
14:00 refrigerator , a solution to not being able to keep
14:03 food fresh for long periods of time or light bulbs
14:05 , a solution to not being able to see at
14:07 night using something that's safer , brighter and more reliable
14:10 than an open flame . Every day engineers design and
14:12 build solutions , but how do they decide which of
14:15 the many potential solutions that they brainstorm will be the
14:17 most successful ? I think an example would be helpful
14:20 here and we've already invented a fake problem . So
14:22 why not invent a fake solution to back to the
14:24 canyon ? You know that insanely deep one with no
14:26 bridge and the raging river at the bottom of it
14:28 ? Yeah that one the problem we defined at that
14:34 spot was how do we fly across this canyon ?
14:36 I'll be are standing engineer again being a good engineer
14:39 . I know it's time to identify the criteria for
14:41 my solution . Basically I need to figure out what
14:44 things my solution needs to do in order to be
14:46 considered successful . Think of it like making a checklist
14:48 number one , it should get me to the other
14:50 side and let me be more specific . It should
14:52 get me to the other side alive . Number two
14:55 . It the thing that gets me to the other
14:57 side should be something I currently have or can easily
14:59 access number three . It would be nice if I
15:02 could reuse whatever it is . One time on the
15:04 other side . Now , if superman's fortress of solitude
15:06 was nearby , I'd snag him and make him fly
15:08 me over this canyon . No prob but sadly ,
15:11 I don't have access to Superman secret layer . So
15:13 like any other engineer I have to make do with
15:16 what I have . So what do I have ?
15:18 I've got the tent that I camp with and that's
15:20 about it . You guys , I can make a
15:21 hang glider out of my tent . It's a resource
15:24 I already have and if I build it properly ,
15:26 it will get me to the other side alive ,
15:27 which is ultimately where I wanna be . Plus bonus
15:30 , I can dismantle the glider on the other side
15:32 and use the pieces for their original purpose , keeping
15:34 me sheltered from lions and tigers and bears . Oh
15:37 , my eye . So superman is a solution in
15:43 that if you were real and if I could somehow
15:45 contact him to get him to carry me over this
15:47 canyon , he could get me to the other side
15:49 alive . But he's not the most successful solution because
15:52 he doesn't meet all of my criteria . He's not
15:54 currently with me and I can't easily find him .
15:57 I mean , the whole point of a secret layer
15:58 is that its secret . So a hang glider meets
16:01 all of my criteria , which means that's our solution
16:03 . We'll fly across this very big canyon with a
16:06 hang glider and of all the solutions that an engineer
16:08 can brainstorm to whatever problem here , she has the
16:11 most successful one . The one that meets all of
16:13 or most of the criteria is the one that engineers
16:15 actually attempt to design . Now , actually making a
16:18 hang glider out of a tent is a different step
16:20 in the engineering process . So it's one that we
16:22 kind of fortunately don't have to mess with today because
16:24 I have zero idea about how to build or fly
16:27 a hang glider and anyway , remember that this is
16:29 a totally fake made up solution . Don't go jumping
16:31 into a canyon or anything with a tent . Okay
16:33 . We're here to solve problems , not creating new
16:35 ones . We've talked about problems and hey , we've
16:38 all got them . But there are other things we
16:40 need to understand if we're going to be good engineers
16:43 , One of the biggest concepts we need to tackle
16:45 is variables . What can we change and what can't
16:48 we change when testing our problems ? Everyone gets a
16:55 case of the what if sometimes you know how you
16:57 ask yourself questions like what if I run out of
16:58 popcorn in the movie is not over yet ? Or
17:00 what if it's raining when I walk home from school
17:03 and I forgot my umbrella ? The threat is real
17:05 people . But you know who ask themselves what if
17:07 questions everyday engineers these kinds of questions are really important
17:12 when you're trying to come up with possible solutions to
17:14 a problem . Like what if we try to cross
17:16 the gorge by building a hang lighter from a tent
17:18 ? Remember that ? To come up with solutions to
17:20 problems like crossing a gorge . You already know that
17:23 engineers use a series of steps known as the trustee
17:26 engineering process . A quick recap . We started by
17:29 defining a solvable problem in our case , how can
17:32 we get across the gorge ? We looked at more
17:34 than one solution and chose a solution that met our
17:37 criteria . It used the materials we had available and
17:39 it would successfully get us across the gorge in one
17:42 piece . Plus we could reuse the pieces afterward .
17:45 Then in the real world . And engineer would build
17:47 a prototype of the solution and test a bunch of
17:50 prototypes before actually using it . And if the solution
17:53 didn't work , they go back to the drawing board
17:55 . Engineers are not quitters . And there's something else
17:58 engineers do during the process that we haven't talked about
18:01 yet . And that's defining variables . Excellent . So
18:04 now we just need to figure out what variables are
18:07 . Mhm . A variable is just a condition or
18:13 a value that can be changed and sometimes a variable
18:16 is something we can control where we , as engineers
18:19 do the changing . But other times variables are totally
18:23 out of our control . So say we want to
18:24 see how high a ball bounces after it hits the
18:26 ground . Let's identify some of the variables involved in
18:29 that . We can change the height from which we
18:31 dropped the ball , or we can change the kind
18:34 of ball we drop . Those are conditions we can
18:37 change . But one thing we can't change is the
18:39 gravity that pulls the ball towards the center of the
18:42 earth after we drop it . That's not a variable
18:44 we can control . Now . What about our attempt
18:47 to cross that giant George ? What are the variables
18:50 there first , let's think about the variables that we
18:56 can control . One variable we can change is the
18:59 weight of our hang glider . We can reduce the
19:01 weight that it has to carry by , say ,
19:03 leaving our umbrella behind . Or we can add more
19:06 weight by asking cat boat to hitch a ride .
19:08 We can also change part of the hang gliders design
19:11 . If you've ever built a paper airplane , you
19:13 know that you can change things like the size or
19:15 the angle of the wings . These things affect how
19:17 far or high the airplane flies . The same goes
19:20 for a hang glider . What about variables we can't
19:23 control . Let's talk wind . The wind over a
19:25 gorge can be nice and breezy . It can also
19:27 be forceful during a storm , but we can't control
19:30 that . Sorry . Also just like bouncing a ball
19:33 , we can't control gravity . Now whether we can
19:36 control the variables or not . Once we've identified what
19:38 could possibly change when we're trying to solve a problem
19:41 , we can start asking what if questions like what
19:44 if the wind speed is higher than normal or what
19:47 if we decide to leave our umbrella behind ? We
19:49 can use the answers to those . What if questions
19:51 to help us decide if our solution is going to
19:54 work , which would be nice to know before we
19:56 go flying off into the gorge . Right ? So
20:03 engineers identify variables which are conditions or values that can
20:06 be changed when they're looking at and testing solutions to
20:09 a problem . And by asking yourself what if questions
20:11 you can practice your engineering skills . What if questions
20:14 can help you identify variables when looking at a problem
20:17 . Just don't ever ask yourself what if I forget
20:19 something that I've learned in Sabrina's awesome engineering videos because
20:23 that's definitely not going to happen . Right . Cat
20:26 box . Come on bird . And yes , crashed
20:34 it . I just be the level that I've been
20:36 stuck on for like a month as any good gamer
20:39 knows it takes the right move to win one wrong
20:41 move and poof . A possible wind can turn into
20:43 a loss . The same thing is true for engineering
20:47 . Last time we are thinking about the moves we
20:48 can make that would guarantee the solution to our getting
20:51 across the gorge problem was a success . And that
20:53 included identifying variables or the conditions or values involved in
20:57 the problem that can be changed . But what's the
21:00 big deal ? Why do engineers identify variables when they're
21:02 designing and testing solutions to a problem ? Remember we
21:09 can control some variables like the height from which we
21:12 drop a ball to see how high it bounces .
21:14 But there are variables we can't control like gravity .
21:17 Whether a solution to a problem turns out to be
21:19 successful or not , depends on picking the right way
21:22 to change of variables . The way something turns out
21:24 like whether a solution solves the problem or not is
21:27 called an outcome . So let's see how changing variables
21:30 can change an outcome by playing a game . The
21:37 goal of this game is to knock down a pile
21:39 of fluffy pink marshmallows and to do that . We
21:41 launch cat bought into the pile using a slingshot .
21:44 There are two variables here that we can control .
21:47 We can change the angle of the launch and we
21:49 can change how far we pull back on the slingshot
21:52 . If we change either or both of these variables
21:54 , then we can get one of three outcomes .
21:56 We can knock over all of the fluffy marshmallows ,
21:59 knock over some of the fluffy marshmallows or miss the
22:03 pile completely . Now I don't want to be stuck
22:06 on this level for another month , so I'm going
22:08 for the complete knockdown outcome , Try number one and
22:12 I miss completely boo . So I'm going to change
22:16 one , variable the angle of the slingshot , but
22:18 I want to pull back on the slingshot just as
22:20 far as last time . Otherwise , I won't be
22:22 able to tell if the outcome of the second try
22:24 is because I changed the angle or if I changed
22:27 how hard I pulled . So let's see if changing
22:29 the angle by pulling back just as hard as before
22:32 gives me the outcome that I want and score total
22:35 knock down . Now if I wanted to for my
22:37 second try I could have decided to change how hard
22:40 I pulled on the slingshot . But if I did
22:42 that I'd have to keep the angle the same bottom
22:44 line . Engineers only change one variable at a time
22:48 . Otherwise we can't tell why a solution works or
22:51 doesn't work . Yeah . So engineers don't just identify
22:58 variables for fun . Although it definitely can be they
23:01 identify them so they can figure out which ones they
23:04 can control that is either change them or keep them
23:07 the same . And that's important to know because changing
23:10 a variable can affect the outcome or result of a
23:12 solution . So engineers change only one variable at a
23:15 time when they test the solution so they're sure of
23:18 the connection between the variable and the outcome . Now
23:21 it's back to my game , I'm coming for you
23:23 , marshmallows , problems , solutions , variables . There's
23:27 a lot going on with engineering but that makes sense
23:29 . Engineers want things to work properly , especially when
23:33 those things are robots and houses . Okay , listen
23:38 to people I need your help . You're gonna have
23:40 to help me engineer my way out of a challenge
23:42 . The challenge being , I kind of dropped my
23:45 phone down a sewer . I know I know I
23:47 was walking down the street and it slipped out of
23:49 my hands and went right into the storm drain and
23:53 um I kind of like it back but that's where
23:55 you come in because this is exactly the kind of
23:58 problem that can be solved with the help of engineering
24:02 , you know that engineers design and build things like
24:04 machines , systems or structures to help solve problems and
24:09 all kinds of problems , not just phones and sewers
24:11 . How can we cross deep dangerous canyons ? How
24:14 can we solve complicated math problems ? If we don't
24:17 have a pencil and paper , you can think an
24:18 engineer for solutions to all of those problems , hang
24:21 gliders , calculators and the list goes on and on
24:24 . So now I need your help to unleash the
24:27 power of engineering to fix my problems . So how
24:31 do we use the engineering process to get my phone
24:33 back ? Mhm first let's review the process . This
24:40 is crucial one define the problem . Okay , I
24:44 need a way to retrieve my phone from a storm
24:46 drain to consider solutions . There's more than one solution
24:50 to any problem . So we need to think through
24:52 different options and choose the best one brainstorm time I
24:55 can tie a rope to the drain and lower myself
24:57 into the darkness . Or I could use a fishing
24:59 pole to retrieve it . Or I can build a
25:02 robot that would go down there for me and bring
25:04 it back . Now I don't want to go down
25:06 there . It's dark and scary and the potential for
25:09 getting sewer water on me is way to act next
25:12 . What about using a fishing pole ? I think
25:14 my phone will be hard to pull up with a
25:15 hook . Plus I won't be able to see where
25:17 I'm aiming the pole . It seems like this option
25:20 isn't the best . What's left ? Oh yeah .
25:23 The coolest option , robots are used to do tests
25:25 that people can't or don't want to do . And
25:28 that means a whole lot of robots are being designed
25:30 for this sort of thing . Not retrieving phones from
25:32 storm drains maybe , but flying down into caves ,
25:36 exploring the ocean floor and even visiting other planets .
25:39 So let's engineer a robot . It'll have to be
25:47 able to fly and be remote controlled . And so
25:49 I can see where it's going . It'll need a
25:51 little camera and it will need a suction cup to
25:53 stick to the phone and carry it to my loving
25:55 hands . Now , next we need to build a
25:57 prototype that we can use for testing . We need
26:00 to test or conduct trials in order to ensure success
26:03 . And for those trials to be really useful ,
26:05 we have to isolate the variables . So what are
26:08 the variables of our mission ? We've got the depth
26:11 of the sewer drain that can't be changed . So
26:13 it's called a fixed variable . We also have the
26:15 size and weight of the phone , which are more
26:17 fixed variables . Then we have the pieces of our
26:20 super cool robot , the propellers , the suction cup
26:23 , the camera . When we finally get to testing
26:25 the robot , we need to isolate each of these
26:27 variables and test them one at a time and pretend
26:31 missions . That way , we can see which variables
26:33 affect how well our robot performs . Like maybe the
26:36 robot can carry something the size of a pencil ,
26:38 but it completely crashes when it tries to hang on
26:41 to my phone . That would be a failure point
26:43 . But we can find ways to science around that
26:46 . If it can't lift something as heavy as my
26:47 phone , maybe we can make the propellers bigger .
26:50 Either way , we'll keep tweaking the variables until we
26:53 get the outcome we're looking for . Then it's all
26:55 systems . Go hang on . Wet and smelly phone
26:57 . Here we come today . We had a challenge
27:04 . We had to retrieve something from a deep place
27:06 we couldn't see and we had to deal with various
27:09 variables to find a solution , variables like the depth
27:12 of the drain , the weight of the phone and
27:14 the strength of the propellers that made the robot fly
27:17 together . We came up with a pretty awesome design
27:19 solution , but like I said before , there can
27:22 be lots of different successful solution . So here's your
27:26 challenge . Can you come up with your own solution
27:28 ? What would your robot look like ? How would
27:30 it get the job done and navigate the variables put
27:33 your brain to work and see what you can come
27:35 up with . I just want to thank you so
27:39 much for helping out in the last episode . I
27:41 needed to get my phone out of the storm drain
27:43 and together we designed a solution . Our robot was
27:46 just one of many possible solutions and maybe you had
27:49 an even better idea at home if you did please
27:52 send it my way . I'd love to check it
27:53 out . But I've got a whole new challenge for
27:56 you . Have you ever just wanted some space to
27:57 yourself ? A place to relax , do your own
27:59 thing . Eat nutella straight off your fingers and burp
28:02 with abandoned . Yeah I need that . That is
28:04 a thing I need you know it can help but
28:07 you already guessed it . Engineering . So how do
28:10 we use the engineering process to solve this problem ?
28:14 Yeah . Well first we've got to define the problem
28:20 . I need a place that is secluded and quiet
28:22 . I needed to provide privacy . In a sense
28:24 of my own . Nus sounds pretty great . Right
28:26 . What about a big box to use as my
28:29 space ? It's secluded and it can be all my
28:31 own solution wise . It's a start but a small
28:34 one we need to consider more options . What if
28:36 I made adjustments to a space ? I already have
28:39 my room . I could hang blankets from the ceiling
28:41 , tell block out sounds from outside . And then
28:43 I could also sing my head off to T swift
28:45 if I wanted to without bothering the rest of my
28:47 family . To top things off , I could add
28:49 a do not enter sign to my door like a
28:51 serious sign , bold font . All caps respect my
28:54 side . Okay , we've got two options . What
28:57 else ? What if instead of adjusting a space ,
28:59 I already have I create a new space . There's
29:02 a word for what we're talking about here . Architecture
29:05 maybe we could become not just engineers but architects ,
29:09 Engineers who design buildings , even though the title of
29:12 the job is a little different , the process is
29:14 still the same . So before doing architecture we've got
29:18 to wear options and choose the best designed to take
29:20 into trials . Let's think about the box idea first
29:23 . It's probably too small . I'd either be squished
29:25 or be half hanging out of it . Okay ,
29:27 how about tricking out my room again while I feel
29:30 like I have a sense of privacy . I know
29:32 that at any point any one of my family members
29:34 could bust in and the blankets on the walls would
29:37 muffle some of the sound but wouldn't totally block them
29:40 out . But hey , here's an idea . What
29:42 about a tree house ? It would be totally my
29:45 own . It would be far enough from my house
29:47 at any weird burps or loud renditions of shake it
29:49 off . Wouldn't bug my family . Of course ,
29:51 it would take some work . Some architecture work .
29:55 So architect activate and sorry . Mm , let's build
30:01 the treehouse . It'll have a drop down rope ladder
30:03 that I can pull up for optimal privacy and it'll
30:05 have windows so I can spot when someone's on the
30:07 way over and properly prepare myself . I can even
30:10 use the blanket while idea for my second proposal to
30:13 muffle the sound . Of course I'll need space for
30:15 lounging and reading and dancing around . But before we
30:19 start building , you know what we've got to do
30:21 , build the prototype and test it . And in
30:24 order to conduct useful trials we need to isolate the
30:26 variables . What are the variables of this particular mission
30:29 ? The size of the treehouse we choose and the
30:31 weight of the treehouse are really important variables because we
30:35 gotta make sure the treehouse can stay in the tree
30:37 . What about variables when it comes to soundproofing the
30:39 thing , the number and the size of the blankets
30:41 that I use would be one and so would be
30:43 the amount of noise I plan on making inside the
30:45 treehouse . And we have to keep in mind failure
30:47 points to like the tree might be able to support
30:49 little old me in a small wooden tree house ,
30:51 but if I have a friend or two over the
30:53 load might be too heavy . That would be a
30:55 serious failure point . As for keeping things nice and
30:58 quiet . Maybe my thickest heaviest blankets can block a
31:01 soft rendition of you belong with me , but they
31:04 might fail when I belt out , shake it off
31:06 or have a burping contest , you've got to test
31:08 these things so we'll keep working with the variables until
31:11 we've got a working design , then it's time to
31:14 build . Architects use the same process , the engineering
31:21 process . When planning buildings , from skyscrapers to small
31:24 family homes , I came up with what I think
31:26 will be a great treehouse , but as always ,
31:29 there can be lots of different successful solutions . So
31:32 here's your challenge . Can you come up with your
31:35 own architecture solution ? What would your building look like
31:38 ? How would it meet the success criteria and navigate
31:40 the variables ? So if we've learned anything , it's
31:43 that engineering is about solving problems . Sometimes those problems
31:47 are big and sometimes those problems are small , but
31:51 engineers need to figure out the answers to those problems
31:53 to make new things that will make life easier ,
31:56 or sometimes just to make us all safer . If
31:59 you enjoyed this , check out the rest of our
32:00 channel and subscribe .
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