What Is Organic Chemistry?: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #1 - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

What Is Organic Chemistry?: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #1 - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


What Is Organic Chemistry?: Crash Course Organic Chemistry #1 - By CrashCourse



Transcript
00:0-1 Hi I'm Debbie Chakravarty and welcome to crash course Organic
00:03 Chemistry . The science of chemistry is pretty incredible because
00:06 it's the science of everything . Stars and computer hard
00:10 drives and desks and our bodies are all made up
00:13 of different arrangements of atoms that are bonded together ,
00:16 breaking apart or reacting with each other all the time
00:19 . We already did a crash course about the wonders
00:21 of general chemistry . So this course will focus on
00:24 just a slice of that pie because we're talking about
00:27 organic chemistry and organic chemistry is the study of molecules
00:30 that have carbon atom with four valence electrons . Carbon
00:33 often katyn eights , which means that it bonds to
00:36 itself . So it forms lots of different compounds .
00:39 You can get long chains of carbons and hydrogen is
00:41 like a decade or rings of carbons like anthropocene or
00:45 complex structures with multiple rings and other atoms like the
00:48 steroids , estradiol . You might think that the whole
00:50 focusing on carbon thing would rule out a lot of
00:53 the universe and it does rule out things like glass
00:55 , rocks , minerals and gems other than diamonds .
00:58 But organic chemicals are pretty much everywhere . Over these
01:02 50 episodes will discover new reactions , new compounds and
01:05 new methods to understand that . And all of these
01:07 discoveries didn't just appear in a chemistry lab notebook overnight
01:11 . They're the result of centuries of hard work isolating
01:15 chemicals trying to figure out what they do and stumbling
01:18 upon happy accidents . That led to revolutionary ideas .
01:21 A big part of understanding organic chemistry is grasping the
01:25 logic behind everything from molecular structures to chemical reaction mechanisms
01:30 . Even though these kinds of problems can feel overwhelming
01:32 , treating them like a puzzle can help us make
01:35 sense of them . So , let's start our story
01:36 with the birth of modern organic chemistry , which begins
01:40 right around the mid 1800s . Film plants like willow
01:54 , ephedra and poppies were known by ancient civilizations to
01:57 have medicinal benefits , but they had no idea why
02:01 . In the early 18 hundreds there was a breakthrough
02:03 in understanding their medicinal properties and people began to extract
02:06 therapeutic chemicals from them . Today , we know these
02:09 plants contain medicinal organic molecules like salicylic acid , ephedrine
02:13 and morphine . Organic means derived from living things .
02:17 And the term organic chemistry was coined by the Swedish
02:20 chemist Yen's Yaka brasilia's , who discovered several elements and
02:24 came up with the modern chemical symbols that we use
02:26 today . At that time , organic chemistry referred to
02:29 the study of chemical compounds extracted from living things .
02:32 We thought that organic compounds could only be harvested from
02:35 living things , but not made . That's why we
02:38 used to dye our fabrics beautiful colors using organic plant
02:41 materials like flowers and dirt . With a little help
02:45 from our own urine . Diarrhea is the main nitrogen
02:47 containing part of urine that comes from our body's metabolic
02:50 breakdown of proteins . But it's also a great fabric
02:53 dyed morden , which is a chemical that makes the
02:56 die last longer and often enhances the color . This
02:59 is because Yuria can form a chemical bridge between the
03:02 dye molecule and the fabric and it shields the die
03:05 from fading . There's evidence that your RIO was used
03:07 by ancient civilizations as a dye additive , particularly for
03:11 indigo dye , the same dye that makes our jeans
03:14 blue in ancient Rome . People would even sell their
03:16 urine to dyer's to make some money . It was
03:18 such a big business that the government even passed a
03:21 urine tax to get a cut of the profits .
03:23 If you've ever tie dye t shirt , the color
03:25 dye solution probably had Yuria in it too . But
03:27 don't worry , since we've moved beyond the get every
03:30 chemical from living things days of organic chemistry , it's
03:33 not derived from your in this area is synthesized from
03:36 an inorganic compound . And for that we can think
03:39 german chemist Friedrich Verlander , he was a rock collector
03:43 and is credited with being the first person to isolate
03:45 the elements atrium , beryllium and titanium . And the
03:49 first person discover organic matter on meteorites . But he's
03:52 most well known for his discovery that an inorganic salt
03:55 , ammonium sion , it could be used to make
03:57 your area without a living organism . Hurlers discovery in
04:00 1828 is considered the starting point of the modern organic
04:03 chemical industry . And today organic chemistry is defined as
04:07 the study of the structure properties , composition , reactions
04:11 and preparation of carbon containing compounds . This definition includes
04:15 chemicals extracted from living things , but also man made
04:18 polymers like plastic . Throughout this course we need to
04:21 remember this one simple thing . Organic chemistry is carbon
04:25 centric . Carbon is the key atom in all these
04:28 molecules and carbon atoms do some very predictable things .
04:31 Like make four bonds keeping this in mind . There
04:34 are several different ways we can draw organic compounds .
04:37 One way to represent organic molecules is with the LeWIS
04:39 structure , like the ones we drew in crash course
04:41 . General Chemistry LeWIS structures illustrate what atoms are connected
04:45 and they show all the bonds and lone pairs of
04:48 electrons and a molecule for example , propane is a
04:51 common fuel for home heating and barbecue grills . And
04:54 it's a simple organic compounds because we haven't learned how
04:56 to name compounds yet . I'm just going to say
04:58 that pro pains molecular formula is C three H eight
05:02 , so it has three carbon atoms in eight hydrogen
05:05 atoms . Molecular formula tells us the atoms we have
05:07 and how many of each atom there is , but
05:10 it doesn't tell us what's bonded to what for that
05:13 . We'll need a LewiS structure . As I mentioned
05:14 earlier , organic molecules can make carbon chains . So
05:17 let's start by connecting all three of proteins carbons in
05:20 a straight line . Then , knowing that carbon atoms
05:23 prefer to make four bonds , we can add enough
05:25 hydrogen atoms around each carbon so that they have four
05:28 bonds . Lastly , we need to check that we've
05:30 accounted for all three carbons and eight hydrogen and propane
05:33 structure . And more importantly , we need to make
05:36 sure each carbon has eight electrons around it . An
05:39 octet . Remember that each bond represents two electrons .
05:42 So four bonds for carbon is eight electrons . So
05:45 we're good writing Lewis structures for small carbon chains isn't
05:48 too bad . But drawing a bigger organic structure that
05:51 shows all of the bonds hydrogen atoms and electrons can
05:55 start to get complicated and let's be real . Were
05:57 busy chemists , we don't have the time to draw
05:59 every structure like this every time . So the first
06:02 simplification we can make is called a condensed structural formula
06:06 where we group all of the hydrogen together next to
06:08 the carbons they're bonded to instead of drawing each one
06:11 separately . That's better , but it's still a bit
06:14 crowded so we can simplify the structure even more by
06:17 removing all the carbons and they're attached hydrogen . This
06:21 leaves behind a skeleton of lines representing bonds , which
06:24 is why this is called the skeletal formula or line
06:27 angle formula . In skeletal formulas . Carbons are the
06:30 bends or the ends of the lines , and hydrogen
06:33 aren't shown because carbon atoms in most organic compounds have
06:37 four bonds , so the number of hydrogen is needed
06:39 to give each carbon four bonds is implying we can
06:42 take these drawing shortcuts for all kinds of organic molecules
06:45 , no matter how complicated or simple they are ,
06:48 for example , let's look at a straight chain of
06:50 eight carbons with the molecular formula C eight h 18
06:53 . That's octane by the way , but we'll get
06:55 to naming it . In a later video , the
06:56 LewiS structure of octane looks like this . The condensed
06:59 structural formula looks like this and the skeletal formula looks
07:03 like this and you can see that unlike the LewiS
07:06 structure , the skeletal formula uses exact lines to represent
07:09 bonds because we need those bends to see how many
07:12 carbon atoms are in the structure . One long straight
07:15 line basically wouldn't tell us anything . We'll need to
07:17 move between the structural representations a lot throughout this series
07:20 . So , given the skeletal structure for ISO octane
07:23 , an important component in gasoline will need to know
07:26 it translates to this condensed formula and this LewiS structure
07:29 . But the thing is , organic chemistry isn't just
07:31 carbon and hydrogen atoms . We have a whole periodic
07:34 table of elements . We've even got a poster though
07:37 there are a few main ones that are commonly apart
07:39 of organic compounds . These atoms and organic molecules other
07:43 than carbon and hydrogen are called hetero atoms . We
07:46 always show hetero atoms with the attached hydrogen in the
07:49 skeletal formula , like this one for the artificial sweetener
07:52 , aspartame . Also , it's sometimes helpful to show
07:55 the lone pairs of electrons on hetero atoms because it'll
07:58 help us think about chemical reactions . Skeletal formulas make
08:01 it easier for us to focus on the parts of
08:03 an organic structure that are non carbon atoms or have
08:06 double and triple bonds . These parts are called functional
08:09 groups and that's where all the cool chemistry happens .
08:11 We'll be dealing with a lot of these skeletal structures
08:13 or other depictions of organic compounds . But it's also
08:17 important to remember that these chemicals are real things that
08:20 we use on a daily basis ascertain which I just
08:22 mentioned is in the little blue sugar packs that we
08:24 add to our coffee . And this cup is already
08:27 full of organic compounds that give coffee its taste and
08:30 smell , and most importantly , the caffeine that helps
08:32 us wake up in the morning . The whole reason
08:34 anyone can see this video in the first place is
08:36 an organic chemical called retinal , a molecule in our
08:39 eyes that's responsible for turning visible light into nerve signals
08:42 . And not to mention , most video screens and
08:45 computer equipment have lots of organic polymers . One important
08:48 breakthrough in polymer chemistry in the 19 seventies was how
08:51 to make plastics conduct electricity . These special kinds of
08:54 polymers are responsible for lightweight laptops , tablets and phones
08:58 we carry around because plastics are a lot lighter than
09:01 metals . Also , light emitting polymers are responsible for
09:04 full colour displays . These light emitting polymers behave almost
09:07 like metals but change colors with different amounts of electricity
09:11 , plenty of natural things like flowers , fruits and
09:13 vegetables are colored because of organic compounds to like beets
09:17 are high in bed linen , a dye that gives
09:19 them a lovely purple color . Some people don't metabolize
09:21 platinum so it turns their urine and feces purple .
09:24 It's also a great fabric dye . To bring this
09:26 all full circle organic compounds give color to a lot
09:29 of the foods and other things we see every single
09:31 day , whether they're fixed with your area or not
09:34 , I hope you're just as excited as I am
09:36 about how diverse organic compounds are . We're going to
09:39 learn so much together , but in this episode we
09:41 talked about the origins of modern organic chemistry , how
09:45 to write lewis structures , condemned structures and skeletal formulas
09:48 . A brief introduction to functional groups and hetero atoms
09:52 and how romans used to soak their fabrics in urine
09:55 , die to make them pretty colors . Next time
09:56 we'll work on nomenclature and what to call these organic
09:59 molecules . Thanks for watching this episode of Crash Course
10:02 Organic Chemistry . If you want to help keep all
10:04 crash Course free for everybody forever , you can join
10:07 our community on Patreon . Yeah .
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