Phonology: Crash Course Linguistics #10 - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

Phonology: Crash Course Linguistics #10 - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


Phonology: Crash Course Linguistics #10 - By CrashCourse



Transcript
00:0-1 Hi , I'm taylor and welcome to crash course linguistics
00:02 . Could you get me a glass of water ?
00:04 What if I asked you for washer ? Like some
00:06 people but certainly not me pronounce it for other people
00:11 that t in the middle of the word can become
00:13 our brains treat these different sounds as equivalent . It's
00:17 still liquid H 20 whether you pronounce it water ,
00:21 water or uh this isn't just true for tea .
00:25 All of the sounds or hand shapes of a language
00:27 can be produced differently depending on the context . Different
00:30 languages and accents have their own variation these patterns and
00:34 the study of them is known as phrenology . Yeah
00:39 . Yeah . Film when we first start to pay
00:48 attention to phrenology , it's like trying to see the
00:51 trick in an optical illusion . We need to learn
00:54 a different way of paying attention which can involve looking
00:57 closely at what our bodies are physically doing or using
01:00 external tools to measure it . It's like when you
01:02 cross your eyes or drag an optical illusion into a
01:05 photo editor to prove that to graze are really the
01:08 same color . But unlike optical illusions , terminology is
01:11 different for each of us , depending on which language
01:13 is we were exposed to at a young age as
01:15 babies were not attached to any one phonological system .
01:18 So baby that's been hearing only english for a few
01:21 months , can still hear all the subtle differences in
01:24 pronunciation that might matter in a different language context .
01:27 But we lose this ability as we get older and
01:29 start only paying attention to certain languages . So phonological
01:32 distinctions that may be obvious for some people might seem
01:35 minute or impossible to distinguish For others . We can
01:38 see how ingrained of phrenology is when people learn another
01:41 language because they'll use the sounds they already recognize .
01:44 An american english speaker like me learning hindi might use
01:48 to learning to say chutney instead of a retro flex
01:51 tough chutney . What I just said might still be
01:54 recognisable to a hindi speaker but it won't sound the
01:57 same before we get further along . In this discussion
01:59 , we need to talk about sound . Linguists use
02:02 the word sound to refer to two different concepts and
02:05 have come up with distinct terms for each of them
02:07 . On the one hand , linguists use the words
02:09 sound to refer to any difference that's relevant for any
02:12 language . For example , water and water means the
02:15 same thing in english . So the distinction between these
02:18 sounds isn't relevant for english , but for spanish speakers
02:21 there's an important difference between the same two sounds .
02:24 It creates new words like pato , which means I
02:27 stop and potato , which means duck . Linguists call
02:31 this non language specific distinction a phone and write these
02:34 symbols in square brackets . On the other hand ,
02:36 linguists also use sound to refer to any difference that's
02:40 relevant or meaningful for forming different words in only a
02:43 specific language in english . That would include the sounds
02:46 to kinda since there the difference between rabbit and rabbit
02:50 , but it wouldn't include the different ways you could
02:52 pronounce the T in the middle of water . Linguists
02:55 call this language specific distinction a phony and write these
02:58 symbols in slashes . Let's play this out with another
03:01 english example . Try putting your hand up in front
03:03 of your mouth as you say team or tall .
03:07 Now try saying steam and stall . You may not
03:10 be able to hear the difference but you can feel
03:13 it on your hand . There's an extra burst of
03:16 air when you say team , but not when you
03:18 say steam . That puff of air is called aspiration
03:21 . In the english , there's no meaningful difference between
03:24 the aspirated to as in team and the un aspirated
03:28 to as in steam . They both sound like t
03:30 to english speakers even though as you just felt they
03:33 aren't exactly the same in linguistic terms . We say
03:37 that these two phones are part of the same phoneme
03:39 . In english . Specifically we say that aspirated to
03:43 an un aspirated to our telephones of the same phoneme
03:46 in english , they're technically different . But english speakers
03:50 think of them as the same sound . But in
03:51 some languages there's a meaningful difference between these two sounds
03:55 . In nepali . Un aspirated tall means lake .
03:58 Well the aspirated tall means plate . You need to
04:01 be able to tell the difference so your lunch doesn't
04:03 get soggy because the distinction between tough and tough is
04:07 meaningful to nepali speakers . We say that these two
04:10 sounds are different phonemes in nepali . So in nepali
04:14 aspirated , tough and un aspirated to are both different
04:17 phones and different phonemes in english these same sounds are
04:22 different phones but they're not different phonemes now , despite
04:25 the Entomology of phone as a sound sign language is
04:28 also have their own chronologies with some hand shapes ,
04:31 movements , locations and orientations for signs that are relevant
04:35 in some signed languages and not in others . For
04:38 example an extended ring finger is a meaningful hand shape
04:42 in Taiwanese sign language but not in BSL or A
04:46 . S . L . Let's go into the thought
04:47 bubble to observe some phonemes in their natural environment .
04:50 To think about how to different sounds can be Allah
04:53 phones of the same phone . Um Let's compare them
04:55 to a rabbit , The snowshoe hare specifically it looks
04:58 like a regular cute brown rabbit most of the year
05:00 . And then in the winter it's brown for changes
05:03 to white even across different seasons . A snowshoe hare
05:06 is the same rabbit , it lives in the same
05:08 hole , it's still recognized by its baby rabbits and
05:11 it still munches on all the veggies that can find
05:13 . But sometimes it shows up as a brown rabbit
05:16 and sometimes it shows up as a white rabbit .
05:18 If we were wildlife observers , we'd want to pay
05:20 very close attention to when these versions appear before we
05:23 conclude that they're the same animal after all . In
05:26 other places , there are rabbits that are brown or
05:29 white all year round . So if we see both
05:31 a white and brown rabbit in summer and in winter
05:34 , we actually have two different rabbits . We can
05:37 write out our observation of the snowshoe hare in three
05:39 parts . The first is what we're starting with one
05:42 rabbit of no specified colors . The second is what
05:46 changes the rabbits for colored and the third is the
05:49 environment where that change happens whether it's winter . From
05:52 this , you have to rules . The first one
05:54 describes how the rabbit changes to white when it's winter
05:57 . And the second one describes how the rabbit changes
06:00 to brown when it's not winter . We can make
06:02 observations like this about sounds in a language to determine
06:05 whether we're dealing with the phoneme with two telephones like
06:08 a color changing rabbit or two different phonemes , like
06:11 two differently coloured rabbits . Thanks thought bubble . The
06:14 difference in meeting between un aspirated , tall and aspirated
06:17 tall in nepali is like seeing a brown and white
06:21 rabbit at the same time , we know that they
06:23 have to be distinct species or phonemes in english .
06:27 We know there isn't a difference in meaning between words
06:29 that have the aspirated to and the un aspirated to
06:33 . Also when looking at single syllable words , we
06:36 here , these two sounds in the same places each
06:38 time the un aspirated to always occurs after an S
06:42 . Or at the end of a word . While
06:44 the aspirated to always occurs at the beginning of a
06:47 word that's like seeing the white rabbit in the winter
06:49 and the brown rabbit in the summer . The different
06:51 versions of to appear in predictable environments . That's how
06:55 we prove these two sounds are telephones of one phony
06:58 . Based on these observations , we can write a
07:00 rule for english that says that to is pronounced without
07:03 an aspiration after an us and with an aspiration at
07:07 the beginning of a word . Linguists write them out
07:08 with this notation using an arrow from the underlying form
07:12 to to what's changed about it like aspiration and a
07:15 slash mark between the sound change and the environment ,
07:18 like being at the beginning of the word . By
07:19 the way this hash mark represents a word boundary .
07:22 You can think of it like a visible version of
07:24 the space between words . We can use the hash
07:27 mark to indicate whether a sound is at the beginning
07:29 or end of a word . The notation is a
07:31 short form that lets us keep track of the many
07:34 phonological rules in each language . It's like training our
07:37 brains to see the optical illusion to see pattern in
07:40 language like linguist isn't the only english consonant that follows
07:44 this rule . Other continents like po and ca also
07:48 have no aspiration after some linguists call this category of
07:51 consonants voiceless stops and can create a general rule ,
07:55 voiceless stops become aspirated at the beginning of a word
07:59 . We could keep going with more rules in english
08:01 and other languages like to an english water , but
08:05 let's zoom out and take a look at the big
08:07 picture . Instead , there are some common phonological processes
08:10 that we see happening across different languages . All languages
08:13 have phrenology is the processes and signed languages have not
08:16 yet been studied in as much detail . So sometimes
08:19 the categories for spoken language don't quite fit for signed
08:23 languages , phones that are produced one after the other
08:26 can sometimes become more similar , which makes it easier
08:29 to produce a word or phrase when speaking quickly .
08:31 Many english speakers will say handbag as handbag , changing
08:35 . Nd to M , shifts the sound to the
08:38 lips so it's now A by labial like B ,
08:41 which makes them easier to stay together . This phonological
08:44 process is known as assimilation , assimilation and signed languages
08:48 can affect the hand shape or sign location . The
08:51 Oslo and signed for name is typically made at the
08:55 head when it's used in the phrase my name .
08:59 It's often performed lower , perhaps near the cheek because
09:02 it's following the my sign at the chest phones can
09:05 also become more distinct when we produce them . The
09:08 english word venom used to be ven in but the
09:11 tuna sounds so close together . Didn't sit well with
09:14 medieval english speakers who changed the second one . Too
09:18 many english speakers do the same with cardamom or maybe
09:21 cartman . Today linguists call this phonological process . Dissimulation
09:26 phones can sometimes be added to break up a difficult
09:28 string of sounds or signs . You might hear people
09:31 adding a pub in hamster or notice the extra vowel
09:35 rihanna uses to break up umbrella into four syllables .
09:39 This phonological process is known as insertion or a pen
09:42 Thanasis . Can sometimes see a movement insertion between signs
09:46 when counting in Aslan . People often add a little
09:48 movement of the hand between each number . Mm phones
09:54 can also be removed . We've even made this part
09:57 of the english writing system with contractions like I've it's
10:01 and can't . Sometimes sounds are removed from the middle
10:04 of words to like the and family . This phonological
10:08 process is known as deletion or collision in Oslo and
10:11 the sign for girl includes a repetition of the movement
10:16 , but in conversation the repetition can be deleted and
10:19 finally phones can switch around . The old english word
10:23 for third was thrid , but english speakers switched the
10:26 I and our around although they didn't in three .
10:29 This process is also why we have acts as well
10:32 as ask . In fact at various points in history
10:35 , acts has been the more common pronunciation . This
10:38 phonological process is known as metamorphosis . In a sl
10:42 the sign for deaf shows metamorphosis . The standard form
10:47 is from ear to mouth , but it can also
10:49 be performed going from mouth to ear . These processes
10:53 either make it easier for us to produce words and
10:55 phrases or help our audience understand them over time ,
10:59 they're part of what drives change in a language .
11:02 It can be challenging to retrain your brain from the
11:04 phonological patterns it's used to , but phonological rules are
11:08 important . They help synthesised speech technology like series sound
11:11 more natural and help us be more sympathetic . Language
11:15 speakers and learners . An appreciation for finn ology is
11:18 useful whatever your environment . Thanks for watching this episode
11:22 of crash course linguistics which is produced by complexity and
11:25 PBS so 2020 has been bad . PBS has a
11:30 new show called Self evident that explores how we've been
11:32 persevering in this supremely weird year . It's hosted by
11:36 historian Daniel Bainbridge from Origin of everything , and therapist
11:39 OLLI Maatta , who you might know from the psych
11:42 show because who better than a historian and a therapist
11:45 to help guide us through all of this self evident
11:49 is part of PBS american portrait , a massive storytelling
11:52 project involving thousands of people around the country . Subscribe
11:56 to PBS voices for self evident and other great shows
12:00 and tell them crash chris sent you .
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