What’s the Most “Animal” Animal? Crash Course Zoology #2 - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

What’s the Most “Animal” Animal? Crash Course Zoology #2 - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


What’s the Most “Animal” Animal? Crash Course Zoology #2 - By Math and Science



Transcript
00:0-1 Thanks to great courses plus for supporting PBS . There
00:03 are animals that can swim walk borough or fly .
00:06 There are plant eaters and animal eaters and everything eaters
00:10 , animals that spawn eggs when they're mates and fierce
00:13 contests or partner for life from that first animal ancestor
00:17 evolved a staggering variety of species over hundreds of millions
00:21 of years Today . In 2021 we know of about
00:25 1.5 million different animals out there , but there are
00:29 still so many to discover before we dive into the
00:32 wild diversity of how animals function , behave and interact
00:36 with each other in their environment . Let's start with
00:38 understanding just one . The animal that best represents all
00:43 of meadows o . A . In the animal kingdom
00:45 . I'm Ray Wynne Grant and this is crash course
00:48 zoology . Mhm . Yeah . Zoologists want to know
01:00 what's an average animal and what's a rare animal because
01:03 it helps us understand what the life of most animals
01:06 is like and make sense of all the wild variations
01:09 out there . Now , before we pick the most
01:12 animal animal , we have to decide how we're going
01:15 to judge . In statistics . We talk about the
01:17 mean median and mode as ways to decide on the
01:20 average of something . And I think we can try
01:22 something similar with animals may be to find the mean
01:26 animal . We try to average out the features of
01:28 all animals , like add up the number of legs
01:31 and eyes and divide by the number of animals we
01:34 included . But then we'd end up with something that
01:37 doesn't match reality at all , like an animal with
01:40 a body plan for three legs and that wouldn't tell
01:42 us anything about how real animals live . Or we
01:46 could try to find the median animal by ordering them
01:48 from the first to diverge from other animals to the
01:51 latest . Then we could pick one that diverged in
01:54 the middle , but that's also hard to do because
01:57 we don't know exactly when every animal group diverged .
02:00 So the easiest move that will still give us insight
02:02 into how most medicines live seems to be figuring out
02:06 the mode or most common type of animal . First
02:09 , we need to figure out how many different species
02:12 or different types of animals there are . In fact
02:15 , generations of zoologists have tried to calculate the total
02:19 number of species on earth or the global species richness
02:22 . One technique calculates a diversity ratio or how abundant
02:26 one group of species is compared to another , like
02:29 how many beetles there are compared to types of trees
02:32 . Counting all the species in an area would be
02:35 exhausting and probably would take forever . So instead zoologists
02:40 make really accurate counts of a group of species they
02:42 know well and assume that information is representative of all
02:47 the animals in the area . In 1982 , an
02:49 entomologist or a zoologist who focuses on insects named Terry
02:54 Erwin from What's now the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural
02:57 History Used the diversity ratio technique to estimate that there
03:01 were 30 million species of just tropical arthropods . So
03:07 30 million species of insects , crustaceans , Iraq needs
03:10 , but mostly Beatles . Let's go to the thought
03:13 bubble . Trudging through the Panamanian forest . Irwin smoked
03:17 out his quarry from the canopy with the aid of
03:20 a backpack insecticide cannon , Which doesn't sound great for
03:24 the Beatles , but the reality of studying animals is
03:27 that sometimes you also study dead animals and it's often
03:31 up to the zoologist to decide what she's okay with
03:33 though there are some regulations . After meticulously examining each
03:38 arthropod back in his us lab , Irwin estimated over
03:41 1200 beetle species lived in each tree that he sampled
03:46 from . Then he did the math . Irwin estimated
03:49 13.5% of beetles would be host specific . This meant
03:54 about 162 of the original 1200 species of beetle would
04:00 only live on the type of tree . He sampled
04:02 . A hectare of tropical forest can have 40-100 species
04:07 of tree . So Irwin decided his hypothetical hectare would
04:11 have 70 species on average . That would mean there
04:14 would be 11,410 host specific Beatles , plus the remaining
04:20 1038 beetle species that are willing to live in any
04:23 old tree altogether . That's over 12,448 species of beetles
04:29 in a single hectare of forest , since 40% of
04:32 arthropods are beetles . Irwin then estimated there would be
04:37 31,120 species of arthropods per hectare . He bumped that
04:42 up by a third to account for species on the
04:45 forest floor . That avoided his pesticide fog to get
04:48 41,389 total arthropods . This was just one hectare of
04:54 one forest , but Irwin then extrapolated his formula to
04:58 include other tropical forests , which is how Irwin concluded
05:02 there were 30 million species of arthropods in the tropics
05:06 alone . Who ? Thanks thought bubble . And since
05:10 the 19 eighties , Irwin's estimate has been recalculated to
05:13 make various improvements . Like not all forest communities are
05:17 the same . Not all trees host 100 and 62
05:20 unique species and not all forests have 70 types of
05:24 tree . Aside from diversity ratios , Zoologists also use
05:28 global trends in where species tend to live called macro
05:32 ecological patterns to estimate global species richness like that more
05:36 species live in the tropics than at the poles .
05:39 We can also explore the species area relationship to calculate
05:43 the global species richness , like larger areas have more
05:46 species because there are more unique ecological roles to fill
05:50 and geographical features like mountains , rivers or oceans can
05:54 also affect species numbers by isolating populations from each other
05:58 . More recently , zoologists are turning to a new
06:01 technique called DNA Barcoding , to make their estimates of
06:04 species richness , comparing bits of DNA can identify unknown
06:08 animals or even check if what zoologists think is one
06:11 species Isn't actually two or 3 . So , using
06:15 all our different methods from diversity ratios and macro ecological
06:18 patterns . Two . DNA barcoding . In 2021 we've
06:22 counted 1.5 million animal species and estimate that the global
06:28 species richness is 8 to 10 million . And those
06:32 numbers will change with new information and techniques next to
06:36 decide on the most animal animal . We have to
06:39 look across all these millions and millions of animals and
06:42 figure out which traits are rare and which are common
06:45 , like being able to fly sound so cool ,
06:48 but flight is actually pretty common to keep track of
06:51 all the different traits . Remember , we use binomial
06:54 nomenclature and break animals up into a similarity hierarchy ,
06:58 starting by grouping animals of the same type together as
07:02 a species . At the very top of the hierarchy
07:05 is the entire animal kingdom . But just below that
07:08 zoologist collect species in large groups called fila or phylum
07:12 for just talking about one group based on their evolutionary
07:15 history and their body plan . A phylum is like
07:18 a genre of animals . They share some key characteristics
07:22 , but each lineage within a phylum is a little
07:25 bit different . Our mode animal probably belongs to the
07:28 most successful phylum , which for us means the phylum
07:32 that's made it all the way to the top of
07:34 the billboard . Top 40 ish of evolution and has
07:38 lots of different species with a wide variety of traits
07:41 diverse Fila are like the mainstream hits . They're unlikely
07:45 to go extinct because they have so many different species
07:48 spread across different habitats and niches and fill it with
07:52 just a few species are the hidden indie gems much
07:55 less successful and much more vulnerable to getting wiped out
07:59 . The top fila aren't who you think like so
08:02 far ? We know that there are 65,000 species of
08:05 core dates or animals with a flexible rod to support
08:08 their body called a note accord Which includes fishes ,
08:11 Amphibians , mammals , reptiles , and birds . That
08:14 sounds like a lot . But remember the global species
08:18 richness is between eight and 10 million . So they're
08:21 the pop music of the animal kingdom , super famous
08:24 and popular , but only about .03% of all animals
08:29 . And there are 35 ish different Philip . So
08:32 , despite what we might see and hear , most
08:34 other animals are well . Non coordinates phylum arthropod A
08:39 includes over 1.1 million different species , making them the
08:44 true rock stars of evolution . Named for their jointed
08:47 limbs . Arthropods have a segmented body covered in a
08:50 hard exoskeleton and include insects along with crustaceans . Mila
08:55 , incentive feeds , horseshoe crabs , spiders , scorpions
08:58 and other Kalis arr . It's so to narrow it
09:01 down and get into what our mode animal looks like
09:04 eats and where it lives . Let's live a day
09:07 in the life of the most animal animal . Allow
09:10 me to introduce you to the humble of mode animals
09:13 as insects are the biggest group of arthropods . Our
09:16 mode animal moves through life on six legs with three
09:20 body segments , compound eyes and 10 and a hard
09:23 exoskeleton that still just paints a vague insect shaped picture
09:29 . So the biggest order within class in sector is
09:32 Kolia . Qtera . The Beatles . Beatles diverged a
09:35 very long time ago , with the earliest fossils being
09:39 300 million years old , so they've had a lot
09:42 of time to split off into over 386,000 estimated species
09:47 Representing about 1/4 of all known animals . But all
09:51 these beetle cousins share a few key body parts .
09:54 So our mode animal definitely has front wings that form
09:58 a protective shell to find our average friend , one
10:02 need only lift up the nearest rock or sift through
10:06 the sand , as beetles can live almost anywhere .
10:09 With every new habitat comes a slew of specialized niches
10:13 that beetles have evolved to fill and with so many
10:16 different habitats , beetles have grown to eat all sorts
10:20 of things . So there's lots of local delicacies out
10:23 there to help lots of young larvae store up energy
10:27 . Our mode animal will be an average joe in
10:31 a wildly diverse family photo , like a carpet beetle
10:34 squeezed in between a weighty titan beetle and a cheery
10:38 ladybug . But today our friend is special because it's
10:42 so average have a great day , little beetle .
10:45 But just because beetles are popular now doesn't mean they
10:49 always will be as zoologists pay more and more attention
10:53 to things like nematodes and parasitic wasps , maybe one
10:57 of them will unseat the beetle as the mod animal
10:59 as we discover more and more species and revise our
11:02 estimates . Next time we'll continue exploring what it means
11:06 to be an animal and how they've evolved into so
11:09 many different shapes and sizes . Thanks to great courses
11:12 Plus for supporting PBS . The Great courses Plus is
11:16 a subscription on demand video learning service with lectures and
11:20 courses from professors from top universities and institutions . Through
11:23 your subscription , you get access to a library of
11:26 lectures about anything that interests you . Science , math
11:29 , history literature or even how to cook , play
11:32 chess or become a better photographer . One new course
11:35 I recommend to help round out your knowledge of the
11:38 biosphere is plant science , an introduction to botany hosted
11:41 by DR Catherine Choir . In this course , you'll
11:44 learn how plants are different but sometimes still surprisingly similar
11:48 to animals . You'll learn about what came first pollen
11:51 or the pollinator and the story of how animals and
11:53 flowers co evolved . And you'll even explore a day
11:56 and year in the lives of plants . To learn
11:59 more , click on the link in the description below
12:01 to start your trial today . Thanks for watching this
12:04 episode of crash course ideology , which was produced by
12:07 complexity in partnership with PBS and Nature . It is
12:10 shot on the team . Sandoval pierce stage at porchlight
12:13 studios in santa barbara California and made with the help
12:16 of all these nice people . If you'd like to
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