Fractions Basics - Math Lesson - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

Fractions Basics - Math Lesson - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


Fractions Basics - Math Lesson - By tecmath



Transcript
00:0-1 today in this video we're going to be doing is
00:02 we're going to do something to look at the basics
00:03 of fractions , fractions numbers which are used to describe
00:08 parts of a whole and you'll often see them written
00:11 as follows . I'll write one down right now ,
00:14 three quarters a common fraction . But I'll just go
00:17 through to explain the different parts of the different names
00:20 of what we have when we talk about fractions .
00:22 So first off we have the number up the top
00:25 here and the top number is called the numerator and
00:29 I'll just write that down . Okay , so this
00:31 is called the numerator . The bottom number here is
00:35 called the denominator , the deer nominator . And you'll
00:40 quite often hear people refer to the lowest common denominator
00:43 and things like this . Okay , so we often
00:46 just think of this as top number and bottom number
00:48 , but it's a numerator and the denominator , the
00:51 other part of a fraction that we have here is
00:54 this part here , which is this line here .
00:56 Okay . And this line is called the vin column
01:00 and I know I am going to say that incorrectly
01:02 , the vin column . So just say it twice
01:05 just to really reinforce the incorrect way of probably saying
01:08 it . So often when I think about this middle
01:11 part here , I think about this being divide .
01:13 So I'll show you what I really mean by this
01:15 . When I talk about this , When I think
01:17 about fractions , I think about them being either three
01:20 parts of four or three out of four . But
01:23 if I'm thinking about this sometimes the numbers , I
01:24 also think this has three divided by four and I
01:27 think that's a great way to think about it as
01:29 well . And that helps you if you get stuck
01:32 on fractions because you can work out what the decimal
01:35 of these are just by going three divided by four
01:38 , which is equal to 0.75 . Then further from
01:42 this you can see the relationship to percentage because this
01:45 number is out of one but if we multiply by
01:48 100 just to make it a little bit nicer .
01:49 We end up with the percentage which is 75 percent
01:54 . So what types of fractions do we have now
01:57 ? I guess the proper fraction is what you think
01:59 of as a normal fraction where we have ? Our
02:01 denominator is bigger than our numerator . So the number
02:04 we have before three quarters was an example of a
02:08 proper fraction . Half would be an example of a
02:11 proper fraction or say something like three fits . Okay
02:15 , these are all examples of proper fractions are denominator
02:19 is bigger than our numerator . How we have another
02:21 type of fraction which is important to know which is
02:23 called an improper fraction . So improper fractions as opposed
02:27 to proper fractions are fractions where the numerator is bigger
02:32 , Then the denominator an example for this might be
02:34 4/3 . Okay , four out of three . And
02:38 you might think that's a bit counterintuitive . How can
02:39 you have a bigger number out of a smaller number
02:42 and we'll have a look at that in a little
02:44 bit later . Okay ? Or you might have something
02:46 like five out of two . Any time that you
02:49 have this numerator bigger than the denominator , you have
02:53 yourself an improper fraction . Now we can change an
02:56 improper fraction too . What's known as a mixed number
03:01 . So this leads us to another type of fraction
03:03 which is a mixed number . A mixed number is
03:06 where you have a mixture between whole numbers and fractions
03:09 . Okay , so four out of three as a
03:11 mixed number . I'm gonna show you at a different
03:13 stage how to work this out . And they're pretty
03:14 easy . Would be written as one and one third
03:18 or 5/2 Could be written as 2.5 . Okay .
03:23 We have an improper fraction which can be converted across
03:27 to a mixed number . So just to explain all
03:30 those different ideas we've gone through and how they relate
03:33 to one another . What about I'll show you on
03:35 a number line . So we got this number line
03:37 and it's going along it's gonna start at zero .
03:40 We go along one part We go along another 2
03:44 2 . We don't need to actually go any further
03:47 to show you what I want to show you here
03:48 . So say let's consider the fraction three quarters .
03:52 Now at the moment this is in a proper fraction
03:54 form . Okay , our denominator is bigger than our
03:57 numerator . So let's actually put this on the number
04:00 line . How do we go about doing this between
04:03 10 here , divide up this many times the amount
04:06 which is the denominator . So we're going to break
04:08 up between one and zero here . Four times four
04:11 . Equal parts 1234 We can keep going and keep
04:15 doing it here as well . 1234 So we can
04:17 do now is we can go through and start putting
04:19 fractions along our number line here . All related to
04:22 quarters . We could go along one part And we
04:24 have gone one out of four . We go along
04:27 to party and we're going to out of four .
04:30 We go along another one and we've gone three parts
04:32 out of four and you're gonna see this is the
04:34 one we wanted to put on . Gonna rub that
04:36 out because I'm going to keep going to this idea
04:38 here , we've gone four out of four . And
04:41 as I said before you get to go , hey
04:42 , that's 14 out of four is equal to 14
04:45 divided by four is equal to one . Like we
04:48 said before , we have five out of four .
04:50 We can keep going . We have six out of
04:53 four . We have seven out of four . We
04:56 could go eight out of four . Once again ,
04:57 eight divided by four is equal to two . All
05:01 right , So what have we got so far ?
05:03 You can see what we have here is a whole
05:05 bunch of proper fractions . We go here and we
05:10 have a whole bunch of improper fractions . So what
05:12 we could also do is we could change all these
05:15 guys here across to mixed numbers . Okay ? Because
05:19 five divided by four is one and one left over
05:23 one out of four . Okay , This is one
05:25 plus one quarter . Okay , So one and a
05:27 quarter . This is one and two quarters , this
05:32 is one and three quarters . So we'll put that
05:34 one in there and I'll put this one in here
05:36 because that fits as well . This is one and
05:38 three quarters and seven divided by four is one with
05:41 three left over 3/4 . That's pretty all right ,
05:44 not too bad . Just leave that last thing I
05:47 want to explain which is I guess equivalent fractions .
05:51 Now , what we also could have done is we
05:52 could have got our number line here instead of breaking
05:55 up before I could have considered halves . Now I'm
05:59 going to leave this all up here because I just
06:01 want to use it to explain something and that is
06:03 equivalent fractions . So if I was to break this
06:06 up into halves , let's start with my zero .
06:08 And I would have broken it up like this .
06:09 Okay , I'll be breaking it up into halves .
06:12 Okay , one there has been halved into two equal
06:15 parts and this part here has been hardening technical parts
06:18 . Now if I was going up like this ,
06:20 what you'd see is I'd go up one at a
06:22 two , I would have gone up to about 2-3
06:25 out of 24 at it too . But it's just
06:27 these parts here that I want to show you what
06:30 we have is equivalent fractions here . two is twice
06:33 as big as one , and four is twice as
06:36 big as two anyway , hopefully that was a great
06:39 introduction for our fractions for you . We'll see you
06:42 next time . Bye .
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