Math Antics - Intro to the Metric System - Free Educational videos for Students in K-12 | Lumos Learning

Math Antics - Intro to the Metric System - Free Educational videos for Students in k-12


Math Antics - Intro to the Metric System - By Mathantics



Transcript
00:03 Uh huh . Hi , this is rob . Welcome
00:07 to Math Antics . In this video , we're going
00:09 to introduce the concept of measurement , which is an
00:11 important topic in math and especially in science . We're
00:15 also going to take a look at a particular system
00:16 of measurement called the metric system objects have different physical
00:21 properties , right ? Like size , weight , volume
00:24 , et cetera . Well , the whole point of
00:26 measurement is to quantify those properties , which just means
00:30 expressing them as a number Without measuring . You could
00:33 say that someone is tall or short or that a
00:36 package is heavy or light but those are relative terms
00:39 that don't give us very specific information . Instead ,
00:43 if you were to make actual measurements , you could
00:45 say that someone's height is 130 cm or that a
00:48 package weighs 5.2 kg measurements . Use an actual number
00:52 to describe properties like that so that you can know
00:55 them more precisely . But there's a catch unless you
00:59 know what a centimeter or a kilogram is . Those
01:01 measurements won't be very helpful . Centimeters and kilograms are
01:05 examples of what we call units of measurement . Units
01:08 of measurement are predetermined quantities that we use as references
01:12 . And it's really important to be familiar with common
01:14 units of measurement . So you know what various measurements
01:17 mean ? Units of measurement aren't something fundamental to math
01:21 . Like addition and subtraction are instead they're amounts that
01:25 people invent and agree on so that we can communicate
01:28 . In fact , we could agree to use just
01:31 about anything as unit of measurement . I could tell
01:33 you that I'm 13 hot dogs tall and my weight
01:36 is 3259 donuts . The problem with those units is
01:42 that hot dogs and donuts aren't very consistent and unless
01:45 you and I are using exactly the same hot dogs
01:48 and donuts to measure will probably come up with different
01:50 results . To get around this problem . The units
01:54 that we use in math and Science are standardized ,
01:56 which means that they match official standard amounts that can
01:59 be measured over and over again to give exactly the
02:02 same result . There's even a government agency called the
02:05 Bureau of Weights and Measures that defines and maintains those
02:09 standard amounts . Well , what do we have here
02:13 ? Nothing . Just measuring stuff . Let me see
02:16 that . Mhm . What ? Just as I suspected
02:21 this isn't properly calibrated . I just had it checked
02:25 , yep , we're gonna have to take it into
02:27 the lab for adjustments . Don't let it happen again
02:31 . So is there a number I call to get
02:33 that back ? Of course , getting a bunch of
02:35 different people to all agree to use the same standards
02:38 is not always an easy task . And throughout history
02:41 , a variety of different units have come in and
02:44 out of popularity . For example , the ancient Egyptians
02:47 used units like cubits and kites which aren't so popular
02:51 today in modern times there are still a lot of
02:54 different units used in different countries . But the most
02:56 popular system of units used around the world is called
02:59 the metric system . Well it's official name is the
03:03 international system of units , or S . I .
03:05 Units for short , which stands for the french system
03:09 international . But the term metric system is still often
03:12 used to refer to this system . The metric system
03:15 is a really great idea because it makes the math
03:18 involved with certain measurements and unit conversion much easier to
03:21 do . That's because just like our base 10 number
03:24 system , most units in the metric system take advantage
03:27 of powers of 10 . The idea behind the metric
03:30 system is to start with a base unit and then
03:33 use standard prefixes to make other units that are bigger
03:36 or smaller than that base unit by powers of 10
03:39 . Here's a list of some of those prefixes to
03:42 see how they work . Let's consider a key unit
03:44 in the metric system called a meter . A meter
03:47 is a basic unit of distance or length and it
03:49 happens to be about this long as you can see
03:52 from our prefixes . The unit that's 10 times bigger
03:55 than a meter is called a deck A meter .
03:57 The unit that's 100 times bigger than a meter is
04:00 called Hector meter and the unit that's 1000 times bigger
04:03 than a meter is called a kilometer or a kilometer
04:07 . But this system also has prefixes to define units
04:10 that are smaller than a meter . The unit that's
04:12 10 times smaller or 1/10 of a meter is called
04:15 a decima eater . The unit that's 100 times smaller
04:18 or 1/100 of a meter is called a centimeter and
04:21 the unit that's 1000 times smaller or 1/1000 of a
04:24 meter is called a millimeter . Get the idea .
04:27 There are also abbreviations for each of these units .
04:30 To make writing them down a lot more convenient .
04:33 A meter is just abbreviated as M and then you
04:36 put other letters in front of that for the other
04:38 units . For example , a kilometer is abbreviated km
04:42 , while a centimeter is abbreviated cm . So why
04:46 does the metric system make working with units easier ?
04:49 Well notice the pattern we get . If we put
04:52 these units in order with the largest unit on the
04:54 left and the smallest unit on the right . Each
04:57 unit is 10 times bigger than the unit immediately on
05:00 its right , in 10 times smaller than the unit
05:02 immediately on its left . That's exactly the same pattern
05:06 that the number of places use in our decimal number
05:08 system . This diagram can give you an idea of
05:11 how the units relate to each other . For example
05:13 , one kilometer is the same as 1000 m and
05:17 one millimeter is the same as 10.1 m or 1
05:21 1/1000 of a meter . And because all these different
05:24 units of length are based on powers of 10 ,
05:26 you can convert between them just by shifting the decimal
05:29 100.1 place at a time , which is equivalent to
05:32 either multiplying or dividing by 10 depending on which direction
05:35 you shift . 2.754 kilometers is the same as 27.54
05:41 hectoliters , which is the same as 275.4 deca meters
05:46 , Which is the same as 2,754 m , which
05:51 is the same as 27,540 Decima eaters and so on
05:56 . You can convert to the next smaller metric unit
05:59 by shifting the decimal point to the right , which
06:02 is equivalent to multiplying by 10 . And you can
06:04 convert to the next bigger metric unit By shifting the
06:07 decimal point to the left , which is equivalent to
06:10 dividing by 10 . For example , 9.8 mm is
06:14 the same as 0.98 cm , which is the same
06:18 as 0.098 decimal eaters , which is the same as
06:22 0.0098 m and so on . So you can see
06:27 why the metric system is so useful . It was
06:30 designed with our number system in mind , which makes
06:32 it easy to work with . Oh . And even
06:35 though the metric system defines a lot of different units
06:37 with all these prefixes , not all are equally popular
06:40 . For example , it's not very common for people
06:43 to use deca meters . They'll usually just say 10
06:46 m or 25 m instead of saying one deck a
06:49 meter or 2.5 deca meters . In fact , there's
06:53 really just four metric units of length that are frequently
06:56 used . And they are the millimeter , the centimeter
06:59 , the meter and the kilometer . Oh . And
07:02 of course nanometers are commonly used when referring to teeny
07:05 tiny stuff like microbes or computer chips . A nanometer
07:09 is 11 billion of the meter . So that's how
07:12 metric units of distance or length work . But there's
07:16 another important quantity that uses the same powers of 10
07:19 prefix pattern . And thats mass or weight . Mass
07:23 is a measure of how much actual matter in object
07:26 contains which is closely related to its weight on earth
07:29 . In the metric system , the basic unit of
07:31 mass or weight is technically the kilogram , but we're
07:35 going to start with just the plain old graham to
07:37 see how the same prefix pattern we used for length
07:39 can be used for mass . Also for reference ,
07:43 a gram is the amount of mass equivalent to one
07:46 cc of water . A deck , a gram is
07:49 10 times bigger than a gram Hector . Graham is
07:52 100 times bigger and a kilogram is 1000 times bigger
07:56 And similarly , a Desa Graham is 10 times smaller
08:00 or 1/10 of a gram . A centre graham is
08:02 100 times smaller or 1/100 of a gram and a
08:05 milligram is 1000 times smaller or 1/1000 of a gram
08:09 . See the same pattern is used and all of
08:12 these units of mass have abbreviations . Also , the
08:15 pattern of abbreviation is similar to the metric units of
08:18 length , but instead of an M for meters ,
08:20 you use A G for grams , kg is kilograms
08:24 . Mg is milligrams and so on again because these
08:28 units of mass are based on powers of 10 ,
08:30 you can convert between them just by shifting the decimal
08:33 point , you can convert to the next smaller metric
08:35 unit by shifting the decimal point to the right ,
08:38 which is equivalent to multiplying by 10 5.24 kg is
08:43 the same as 52.4 Hector grams , which is the
08:46 same as 524 deca grams , which is the same
08:50 as 5000 240 g and so on . And you
08:54 can convert to the next bigger metric unit by shifting
08:57 the decimal point to the left , which is equivalent
08:59 to dividing by 10 16.3 mg is the same as
09:04 1.63 cinta grams which is the same as 0.163 Desa
09:09 grams which is the same as 0.163 g and so
09:14 on . But as was the case with units of
09:17 length . Many of these units of mass are not
09:20 used as often as the others . For example ,
09:22 Cinta grams aren't as popular because people will usually just
09:25 say 10 mg or 25 mg instead of one cent
09:29 a gram or 2.5 cent a grams . The units
09:33 of mass that you most commonly encounter in everyday life
09:36 are the milligram , the graham and the kilogram .
09:39 So make sure you're familiar with those . All right
09:42 . So that's the basic idea behind measurement and the
09:44 metric system Measureed helps us describe things in the world
09:47 we live in and to compare them using units .
09:50 And the units in the metric system are specially designed
09:53 to play well with our base 10 number system .
09:55 But it's important to know that the S . I
09:58 . Or metric system does use some units that are
10:00 not based on powers of 10 . Like time .
10:03 For example the basic S . I . Unit of
10:05 time is the second . But units of time that
10:08 are larger than a second are still the traditional ones
10:11 that are based on the motion of the earth and
10:13 the sun like minutes , hours , days and years
10:16 . Fortunately units of time that are smaller than a
10:19 second do use the base 10 prefixes such as milliseconds
10:23 and nanoseconds . I wish I had more time to
10:26 talk about time in this video and all the non
10:29 metric units that are still commonly used today , like
10:32 feet or pounds . But I'm afraid those will have
10:34 to wait for future videos . There aren't too many
10:36 exercises for this lesson . But if measurement and the
10:39 metric system , our new topics for you , you
10:41 might want to give them a try as always .
10:43 Thanks for watching mathematics and I'll see you next time
10:46 . Learn more at Math Antics dot com .
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