Reading Practice Question Grade 8 English Language and Arts - Skill Builder + ACT Aspire Rehearsal

Grade 8 English Language and Arts - Skill Builder + ACT Aspire Rehearsal Reading

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Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.

Painting is a mode of expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature.

A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin.

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying-oil—especially in early modern Europe. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks, as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance, oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

As used in paragraph two, which of the following is the best definition for the word “aesthetics”?